Biology - Endocrine Diseases


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Introduction

  • The diseases caused by either the deficiency or excessive of hormones is known as endocrine diseases.

  • The branch of medicine that studies the endocrine disorders is known as endocrinology.

The List of Endocrine Diseases

  • The following table illustrates the endocrine diseases −

Glucose Homeostasis Disorders
Diseases Types Result
Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 Diabetes Increases sugar levels
Type 2 Diabetes
Gestational Diabetes
Hypoglycemia Idiopathic hypoglycemia Decreases sugar level (below normal)
Insulinoma
Glucagonoma Cause: Because of the overproduction of glucagon hormone tumor of the pancreas
Thyroid Disorders
Goiter Cause: deficiency of iodine swelling of the neck or larynx
Hyperthyroidism (excessive production of thyroid hormone) Graves-Basedow disease Muscle weakness, sleeping problems, diarrhea, weight loss, etc.
Toxic multinodular goitre
Hypothyroidism
(low release of thyroid hormone) Poor ability to tolerate cold, a feeling of tiredness, constipation, depression, and weight gain
Thyroiditis Hashimoto’s thyroiditis Inflammation of the thyroid gland
Thyroid cancer Nodule in the thyroid region of the neck
Metabolic Bone Disease
Parathyroid gland disorders Primary hyperparathyroidism Alterations in the blood calcium levels and bone metabolism
Secondary hyperparathyroidism
Tertiary hyperparathyroidism
Hypoparathyroidism
Osteoporosis Bone weakness
Paget's disease of bone Weakening of bones
Rickets and Osteomalacia Child disease (because of vitamin D deficiency)
Pituitary Gland Disorders
Diabetes insipidus Excessive thirst and excretion of large amounts of severely dilute urine
Hypopituitarism
Pituitary tumors Pituitary adenomas
Prolactinoma
Acromegaly
Cushing's disease
Sex Hormone Disorders
Intersex disorders Hermaphroditism
Gonadal dysgenesis
Androgen insensitivity syndromes
Genetic and chromosomal disorders Kallmann syndrome
Klinefelter syndrome
Turner syndrome
Acquired disorders Ovarian failure
Testicular failure
Disorders of Puberty Delayed puberty
Precocious puberty
Menstrual function or fertility disorders Amenorrhea
Polycystic ovary syndrome


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