The technique of classifying organisms is known as Taxonomy.
Taxonomy is made up of two words i.e. ‘Taxis,’ which means ‘arrangement’ and ‘Nomos,’ which means ‘method.’
The Swedish botanist Carolus (Carl) Linneaeus has developed the modern taxonomic system.
Linneaeus has developed the following hierarchy of groups to explain the taxonomy −
In this hierarchy, Domain is the highest order and the broadest category and Species is the lowest order category.
Further based on the difference between eukaryotes and prokaryotes (cells) ‘Domains’ classified into three broad categories namely −
Archea(Archeabacteria) − It comprises the bacteria that live in extreme environments.
Eubacteria − It comprises the bacteria that found in everyday life.
Eukaryote − It comprises almost all the world's visible living things.
The above given three domains are further categorized into Five following Kingdoms −
Let’s discuss each kingdom in brief −
Monera − It comprises the unicellular organisms, e.g. bacteria.
Protista − Similar to monera (unicellular), but more developed and complex. It contains nucleus.
Plantae − All plants from smallest (such as algae) to the largest (such as Pine, Eucalyptus trees, etc.) are studied under this kingdom.
Fungi − It is a group of eukaryotic organisms that comprises microorganisms such as yeasts, molds, and mushrooms. The organisms of this kingdom do not make their food, they are basically parasites.
Animalia − It includes all the multicellular and eukaryotic organisms (of animal group). It is also known as Metazoa.
The naming culture (of different organisms) practiced uniformly across the world is known as binomial nomenclature.
Binomial Nomenclature largely consists of two words – the first word beginning with a capital letter and known as genus (of the organism) and the second word begins with lower case letter and defines the species of the organism.
Binomial Nomenclature must be written in italic and also known as scientific name.
For example, the binomial nomenclature of human is - Homo sapiens; tiger - Panthera tigris, etc.
Cells are fundamentally categorized by prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
Prokaryotes are the smallest and simplest type of cells.
Prokaryotes have no true nucleus and no membrane-bound organelles. E.g. Bacteria.
Prokaryotes’ Genome consists of single chromosome.
Reproduction is asexual; basically mitosis type.
Eukaryotes are complex in structure.
Eukaryotes have nuclei and membrane-bound organelles.
Eukaryotes’ Genome consists of numerous chromosomes.
Reproduction is sexual; by mitosis and meiosis.
The process of division of parent cell into two or more daughter cells is known as cell division.
In early 1880s, Flemming first observed the process of cell division.
Following are the three types of cell division −
Let’s discuss each of them in brief −
Parent cell gets divided into two parts, and each of them grows as a new complete organism.
Amitosis can be seen in less developed organisms. E.g. bacteria
Amitosis is also known as binary fission.
There is no stage of division, cell directly gets divided into two new organisms.
The process of division of parent cell into two new identical cells is known as mitosis.
In both the new cells, the number of chromosomes remain same.
Mitosis (cell division) occurs only in eukaryotic cells.
In mitosis, the division of the nucleus is preceded by the S stage (i.e. interphase - during this phase, the DNA is replicated).
After the interphase, the cytokinesis process begins, which divides the cytoplasm, cell organelles, and cell membrane into two new cells.
The process of mitosis is divided into the following stages −
The stages of mitosis are described in the following image −
Let’s discuss each of them in brief −
During the prophase, cell prepares to get divided.
The prophase process is also known as chromosome condensation, as chromatin fibers condense into discrete chromosomes.
Each chromosome has two chromatids and these two chromatids are joined at a place known as centromere.
In this phase, the nuclear envelope gets disintegrated into small membrane vesicles.
In this phase, the two centrosomes start pulling the chromosomes towards opposite ends of the cell and ensure the equitable distribution of chromosomes.
In this phase two identical daughter chromosomes are formed.
Telo is a Greek word meaning ‘end’.
In this phase, the nuclear envelop gets broken and a new nuclear envelop forms.
The new envelope gets formed around each set of separated daughter chromosomes; parallel, the nucleolus reappears.
Likewise, the mitosis is complete.
Cytokinesis, technically, is not a phase of mitosis, but rather a distinct process, essential for completing the cell division.
In this phase, cytoplasm begins to divide and completed with the development of two new identical cells.
Meiosis is a typical type of cell division in which the chromosome number gets reduced by half, creating four haploid cells. Each cell is genetically distinct from the parent cell.
Meiosis cell division process occurs in all sexually reproducing single-celled and multicellular eukaryotes, including plants, animals, and fungi.
Meiosis cell division is primarily categorized as Meiosis I and Meiosis II.
A virus is a micro infectious agent, which is found as parasite in the living cells of other organisms.
Virus replicates swiftly inside the living cells of other organisms.
Virus is a Latin term meaning ‘poison’ and other ‘noxious’ liquids.
Viruses can infect any type of life forms, ranging from animals and plants to microorganisms, including bacteria and archaea.
The study of viruses is known as virology.
Virus is first discovered by Dmitri Ivanovsky in 1892.
Virus has the properties of living as well non-living.
One of the living properties is – virus has either DNA or RNA (never both).
One of the non-living properties is – virus has no protoplasm.
Based on parasitic nature, virus is categorized as −
Following are the list of diseases caused by virus in Human beings −
Influenza (or Flu)
Herpes (skin disease)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/AIDS)
Human papillomavirus (HPV)
Mumps (measles and rubella)
Viral gastroenteritis (stomach flu)
Following are the list of diseases caused by virus in plants −
Peanut - Stunt Virus
Maize - Mosaic Virus
Lettuce - Mosaic Virus
Cauliflower - Mosaic Virus
Sugarcane - Mosaic Virus
Cucumber - Mosaic Virus
Tobacco - Mosaic Virus
Tomato - Twisted leaf disease
Lady finger - Yellow vein mosaic
Following are the list of diseases caused by virus in animals −
Cow – Herpes (Herpes virus)
Buffalo – Small pox (Poxverdi orthopox)
Dog – Rabies (Stereit virus)
Bacteria normally comprises a large number of prokaryotic microorganisms.
Bacteria most probably were among the first life that formed to appear on the Earth.
Bacteria belong to Monera kingdom.
Bacteria usually inhabit in all range of environments, such as soil, water, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste, and the deep portions of Earth's crust.
The study of bacteria is known as bacteriology.
Bacteria play an important role in many stages of the nutrient cycle by recycling nutrients including the fixation of nitrogen from the atmosphere.
Bacteria grow to a fixed size and after maturity reproduce through asexual reproduction i.e. basically binary fission.
Under favorable conditions, bacteria can grow and divide very swiftly, and the bacterial populations can double merely in every 9.8 minutes.
When viruses that infect bacteria is known as Bacteriophages.
In order to modify themselves (to survive in the adverse environment), Bacteria frequently secrete chemicals into their environment.
Bacteria are advantageous in many ways, such as −
Bacteria help in atmospheric nitrogen fixation.
Bacteria decompose dead plants and animals and clean the environment.
Bacteria are the major element that convert milk into curd and wine into vinegar.
Some specific types of bacteria are used in making proteins.
Some types of bacteria are also used as pesticides.
Bacteria cause many diseases and infection to living organisms.
Bacteria cause many diseases, significant of them are −
Anthrax - caused by Bacillus anthracis
Brucellosis - caused by Brucella abortus
Botulism - caused by Clostridium botulinum
Coliform diseases - caused by Escherichia coli
Leprosy - caused by Mycobacterium leprae
Plague - caused by Yersinia pestis
Typhoid fever - caused by Salmonella typhi
Trachoma - caused by Chlamydia trachomatis
Diphtheria - caused by Corynebacterium diphtheria
Tetanus - caused by Clostridium tetani
Tuberculosis - caused by Mycobacterium bovis
Cholera - caused by Vibrio cholera
Syphilis - caused by Treponema pallidum
Whooping cough - caused by Bordetella pertussis
Gonrhoea - caused by Gonococcus
Potato wilt - caused by Pseudomonas solanacearum
Blight of rice - caused by Xanthomonas orzae
Fire blight of apple - caused by Invenia
Fungi are the members of eukaryotic organisms, which includes microorganisms such as molds, yeasts, and mushrooms.
Fungi do not photosynthesize rather they obtain their food by absorbing the dissolved molecules, usually by secreting digestive enzymes into their environment.
Fungi are found in almost every part of the world, and they can grow in a wide range of habitats, ranging from extreme environments (such as deserts) to mild (such as temperate region).
Fungi are the primary decomposers in most of the ecological systems.
The study of fungi is known as mycology.
Fungi have membrane-bound cytoplasmic organelles, for example mitochondria, sterol-containing membranes, and ribosomes.
Fungi have also a cell wall and vacuoles (property of plants).
Fungi have no chloroplast and they are heterotrophic organisms (property of animals); likewise, fungi have both the properties of plants and animals.
Fungi have medicinal advantages, as they have been used for the manufacturing of antibiotics and various enzymes.
One of the most popular antibiotic drug penicillin is manufactured from the fungus Penicillium.
The ‘shiitake,’ one of the types of mushroom is a source of a clinical drug known as Lentinan.
Fungi are also used as the biological pesticides to control plant diseases, weeds, and insect pests.
In Japan, Lentinan is used to treat in cancer disease.
As they feed the dead organic matters, fungi recycle about 85 percent of the carbon from dead organic matter; likewise, fungi release the locked-up nutrients so that they can be used by other organisms.
Many varieties of fungi such as oyster mushrooms, straw mushrooms, shiitakes, milk mushrooms, truffles, and black trumpets are edible.
Portobello mushrooms and Button mushrooms are usually used in soups and salads.
Fungi are also used to produce industrial chemicals, including citric, malic and lactic acids.
Fungi are frequently used to produce industrial chemicals, such as citric, malic and lactic acids.
Some mushrooms, though they look like edible mushrooms, but they are poisonous that may cause even death to the person who ate.
Some Fungi can infiltrate the external layers of the human bodies and cause itching and rashes problems.
Certain fungi appear on food stuffs and destroy them shortly.
Fungi also cause various diseases to animals (including humans) as well as plants.
Fungi cause many diseases, significant of them are −
Athlete’s foot - Taenia pedis
Asthma - Aspergillus fumigatus
Ring work - Trichophyton
Meningitis - Cryptococcus neoformans
Baldness - Taenia captis
Dermatophilosis - Dermatophilus congolensis
Wart disease of potato - Synchytrium endobioticum
Rhinosporidiosis - Rhinosporidium seeberi
Rust of wheat - Puccinia graminis tritici
Red rot of sugarcane - Colletotrichurn falcatum
Root is the most essential part of a plant that grows down to the soil and water.
Root avoid the sunlight, as it grows down to soil and water, and absorbs mineral salt and water from the soil.
However, some typical roots are also aerial or aerating, that grow up above the ground or especially above the water.
Roots do not have leaves, buds, and nodes.
The roots absorb mineral salts and water from the soil then supply them to other parts of the plants.
Roots provide foundation to plants and keep them static.
Some roots absorb foods for the contingency period; e.g. radish, carrot, etc.
Primarily, roots are classified as −
Let’s discuss them in brief −
There is a main root (see the image given below) that grows faster and it has many branches. Usually, it occurs in dicotyledon plants.
There is as such no primary root rather there are numerous roots of similar shape, thickness, and size.
It is typical feature of monocots (plant).
A typical root that grows from any part of a plant except the primary root part.
Adventitious root may be underground or may aerial.
The following table illustrates some typical examples of modified taproots −
The following table illustrates some typical examples of modified adventitious roots −
|Prop root||Banyan tree|
|Stilt root||Sugarcane, maize, etc.|
Note − Tuber is a stem that grow horizontally under the soil and develop roots on their lower surfaces. Major function of this swollen stem is to store food and nutrients. E.g. potato, onion, etc.
A stem is one of the main structural axes of a vascular plant.
The stem, structurally, is categorized into nodes and internodes (see the image given below).
The other term used for the stem is shoot, but there is difference between stem and shoot, i.e. stem includes only stem part, whereas, shoot includes stem, leaf, flower, etc. (shoot term basically used for new plant growth).
Following are the significant functions of a stem −
Stems keep plant upright and support leaves, flowers, and fruits.
Stems comprise xylem and phloem (tissues) that transport fluids and nutrients between root and shoot.
Stems store nutrients and produce new cells and tissues.
Stems are usually categorized as −
The stem that grows inside the soil is known as underground stem. E.g. Potato.
Such type of stems store food for contingency period.
The stem, which partial remains inside the soil and partial above (i.e. in the air), is known as subaerial stem. E.g. Cynodon
The stem, which entirely remains in the air (i.e. out-side of soil or water), is known as aerial stem. E.g. passiflora, grapes, etc.
Sometimes, stems perform some specific task (other than their regular task), for which they change their shapes and sizes.
The following table illustrates some of the examples that modified stems −
|Underground Modified Stem||Bulb||Garlic, Onion, etc.|
|Corm||Saffron, Crocus, etc.|
|Subaerial Modified Stem||Stolon||Jasmin, Straberi, etc.|
|Offset||Water plant, Pistia, etc.|
|Sucker||Roses, Musa, etc.|
|Runner||Mereilia, Cynodon, etc.|
|Aerial Modified Stem||Stem thorn||Lemon, Citrus|
Leaves, usually, are thin and flattened organs, borne above ground.
There are varieties of leaves in terms of shapes, sizes, and textures. Likewise, different species of plants have different shapes, sizes, and textures of leaves.
Some varieties of leaves are thick and juicy (especially of succulent plants).
Leaves are usually of green color because of the presence of chloroplast.
However, some show plants have colorful leaves (see image given below) −
Succulent plants often have thick juicy leaves, but some leaves are without major photosynthetic function and may be dead at maturity, as in some cataphylls and spines (see image given below).
Following are the major functions of leaves −
Leaves prepare food through photosynthesis.
Leaves are the most important parts through which plants respire.
Some leaves also store foods for the contingency period.
Leaves assist in reproduction and pollination.
Some leaves (especially of succulents plants – shown above), store chemical energy and water.
To survive in an adverse environment, some of the plant species (especially leaves) modified themselves. Following are the list of such leaves −
Spine leaves − Such leaves are look like spines, e.g. cactus plants (see image below).
Bract leaves − Also known as pseudanthia (or false flowers), they are colorful leaves (see image below).
Succulent leaves − These leaves store water and organic acids (see image below).
Tendril leaves − Such leaves take the form of tendril and support plant to climb, e.g. pea plants (see image below).
Scaly leaves − Some leaves modify themselves to protect buds known as scaly leaves, e.g. onion, garlic, etc. (see image below).
Hook leaves − Such leaves modified as nails known as hook leaves, e.g. Bignonia (see image below).
Pitcher leaves − Such leaves trap insects, e.g. pitcher plant. This is known as carnivorous plant (see image given below).
Flowers, as all of us interpret, are the beautiful parts of the plants, which beautify the environment by their enthralling colors and decisive fragrance.
But flower is biologically the reproductive part of the plant.
Following are the major functions of a flower −
The primary function of a flower is reproduction by the process of the union of sperm with eggs.
Depending upon the inherent property, flowers may facilitate selfing, which means fusion of sperm and egg from the same flower OR it may facilitate outcrossing, which means fusion of sperm and eggs from different individuals in the respective population.
The flowers produce diaspores (consisting of a seed or spore) without fertilization.
The flower is the site where gametophytes (is the sexual phase) develop.
Some of the flowers fascinate animals, birds, and other insects, so as to cause them to be vectors for the transfer of pollen.
After sometime of fertilization, the ovary of the flower develops into fruit that contains seeds.
Primarily, the parts of a flower are categorized as −
The Vegetative Part and
The Reproductive Part
Let’s discuss them in brief −
Calyx − Calyx is the outermost part that consists of some units known as sepals. It is typically of green color (see the image given below).
Corolla − Corolla is the second (next to calyx) coil towards the apex, composed of units known as petals. Petals are usually thin, soft, and colored. It attracts insets and birds that ultimately help in pollination.
Androecium − It consists stamens (the male sex organ). Every stamen has three parts namely Filament, Anther, and Connective.
Gynoecium − It is the inner most part of the flower and consists of carpels (female sex organ).
Carpels consist of ovary, style and stigma, collectively known as a pistil.
Pollination is basically the process of movement of pollen from the anthers to the stigma.
When the pollens move to stigma of the same flower, it is known as self-pollination; on the other hand, if pollen move to stigma of other flower, it is known as cross-pollination.
Pollination process occurs through different mediums (see the table) −
|Process (Pollination)||Medium (Pollination)|
For the common people, fruits are nutritious and delicious edible things, but for a botanist, fruits are the seed-bearing structure found in flowering plants.
During the ancient period or even today, many of the animals including human beings are dependent on fruits (for their survival).
Likewise, fruit is usually fleshy seed-associated structures of a plant, which is edible in the raw state (not all types of fruits are edible, as some are poisonous) and tastes sweet or sour.
The layer, usually, surrounding the seeds, is known as ‘pericarp.’
Formed of ovary, pericarp is the edible part of fruit.
The pericarp further classified as epicarp, mesocarp, and endocarp.
Some fruits are seedless (such as banana), which have pretty high commercial importance.
Further, some fruits are scientifically developed seedless such as pineapples, grapes, etc.
Based on the fertilization of the flowers, fruit is classified as −
True Fruits − When the fruit forms in the ovary (of the flower) through fertilization is known as true fruit. E.g. strawberry.
False Fruits − The fruits formed some other means (other than ovary), such as calyx, thalamus, corolla, etc. known as false fruits. E.g. pear, apple, etc.
Further, because of verities and diversities, fruits are classified as −
Simple fruit − It can be either dry fruit (such as coconut, walnut, etc.) or fleshy (such as gooseberry, tomato, etc.).
Aggregate fruit − It is formed from single flowers, which have multiple carpels. E.g. raspberry.
Multiple fruit − It is formed from a cluster of flowers, e.g. pineapple, mulberry, etc.
Following table illustrates the name of fruits and their edible parts −
|Chinese date||Epicarp & Mesocarp|
|Ground nut||Seed leaves|
Like animals, plants also suffer from verities of diseases.
The biological agents that causing diseases to plants are known as pathogens.
Some of the common plant pathogens are −
However, some non-pathogenic diseases (in plants) may also occur when the pH value, moisture, humidity, soil, etc. of soil change.
The following table illustrates the major plant diseases caused by virus −
|Bud Blight||Soy beans|
|Curly top||Beans, tomato, sugar beets, etc.|
|Mosaic leaf||Tomato, tobacco, corn, legume, potato, pea, sugar beet, cucumber, maize, cauliflower, sugarcane, bean, etc.|
|Yellowing of leaf||Barley, sugar beet, potato, etc.|
|Spotted Wilt Virus||Tomato, capsicum, etc.|
|Chlorosis Virus||Tomato, capsicum, etc.|
The following table illustrates the major plant diseases caused by Bacteria −
|Blights||Vegetable crops, fruit trees, etc.|
|Bacterial wilts||Corn, tobacco, potatoes, alfalfa, tomatoes, etc.|
|Bacterial speck||Fruits and leaves of different plants|
|Leaf spot||Cotton, beans, peas, etc.|
|Soft rots||Fleshy or succulent plant parts|
|Fire Bligh||Rosebushes, pome fruit trees, etc.|
The following table illustrates the major plant diseases caused by Fungi −
|Cankers||Largely woody plants|
|Downy mildew||Grains, onions, cucumbers, alfalfa, etc.|
|Ergot||Rye, barley, wheat and other grasses|
|Powdery mildew||Grains, legumes|
|Tuber diseases||Potato, sweet potato, etc.|
|Rusts||Wheat, barley, rye, oats, etc.|
|Root rots||All types of plants|
|Scab||Wheat, barley, rye, potato, etc.|
|Smuts||Oats, barley, corn, wheat, grasses, etc.|
|Wilts||Potatoes, alfalfa, etc.|
The following table illustrates the major plant diseases caused by Nematodes −
|Hairy root||Sugar beets, potatoes, soybeans, etc.|
|Root lesions||Different species of plants get affected|
|Root-knot||Tomatoes, peanuts, etc.|
The body fluid, found in almost all multicellular fauna (animals, birds, reptiles, etc.), and responsible for transporting necessary substances such as oxygen and nutrients to different parts of the body, is known as blood.
Blood is basically connective tissue in the liquid form.
Blood is largely composed of blood cells and plasma.
Plasma constitutes about 55 percent of blood fluid.
The pH value of blood pH is ranging between 7.35 and 7.45, i.e. slightly basic.
Plasma is mostly water (i.e. 92% by volume) and contains dissipated proteins, glucose, hormones, mineral ions, and carbon dioxide.
The blood of vertebrate (animals) appears bright red when its hemoglobin is oxygenated; when it is deoxygenated, it (blood) appears dark red.
The blood accounts about 7 percent of the human body weight.
Following are the significant functions of blood in the body −
Transports oxygen to tissues and cells located in different parts of the body
Supplies nutrients (e.g. glucose, fatty acids, amino acids, etc.) to tissues and cells located in different parts of the body
Removes waste products (e.g. carbon dioxide, urea, etc.) and help to throw outside the body
Also strengthens the immune system of the body
Regulates the body temperature.
Following are the significant terminologies that help to understand the blood −
Blood Cells − based on color and function blood cells are classified as Red Blood Cells (RBC) and White Blood Cells (WBC).
Red Blood Cells (see the image given below) consist of red pigments, known as haemoglobin, helps in oxygen transportation.
White Blood Cells − (WBC) increase the immune system of the body, as it fights with the harmful germs that enter in your body.
Platelets − Blood platelets have very important function i.e. it helps in blood clotting.
Lymph − Lymph is a colorless fluid, which contains specialized lymphocytes; lymphocytes are accountable for the immune responses of the body.
Following are the two major types of blood vessels −
Let’s discuss them in brief −
The blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood (i.e. pure blood) from heart to all different parts of the body is known as arteries.
Arteries usually have thick (vessels) wall because of having high blood pressure.
All types of arteries transport oxygen rich blood from heart to different parts of the body except ‘Pulmonary Artery.’
Pulmonary Artery carries carbon dioxide rich blood from heart to the lung for the oxygenation purpose.
The tiny networks of blood vessels are known as capillaries. Capillaries are very thin structure.
The blood vessels that carry carbon dioxide rich blood (i.e. impure blood) from different parts of the body back to heart are known as veins.
Veins usually have comparatively thin (vessels) wall.
The pulmonary vein carries oxygen rich blood from lung to the heart.
Based on the presence and absence of antibodies, the blood is classified into different groups.
Further, while classification, the presence and absence of the inherited antigenic substances also considered.
The types of blood groups are inherited and represent contributions from both the father and the mother.
In human blood, usually, there are two antigens and antibodies.
The two antigens are antigen A and antigen B.
The two antibodies are antibody A and antibody B.
The antigens are remaining in the red blood cells, whereas the antibodies are found in the serum.
Based on the antigen property, the blood group of all human beings can be classified as −
Blood Group A − antigen A and antibody B
Blood Group B − antigen B and antibody A
Blood Group AB − antigen A and antigen B and no antibody
Blood Group O − no antigen, but antigen A as well as antibody B
Consideration of the ABO system is the most imperative while transfusion of human blood.
The ABO blood group systems were first discovered by Karl Landsteiner in 1901.
The Rh system (the meaning of Rh is Rhesus) is another significant blood-group system. It is very important to match Rh system while blood transfusion.
Rh antigen first studied in Rhesus monkeys; therefore, its name is given Rh factor/system.
The person who does not have Rh antigen is known as Rh negative (Rh-ve) and the person who has the Rh antigen is known as Rh positive (Rh+ve).
Based on the above discussed two blood grouping system (i.e. ABO and Rh), the following table illustrates the possibilities of blood transfusion among different blood groups −
Based on the blood transfusion table given above the blood group O- is the universal donor, which can give blood to the person of any blood group.
Secondly, the blood group AB+ is the universal recipient, as it can accept blood from the person of any blood group.
The brain of a human being is the central organ of the nervous system.
The human brain consists of three parts namely the cerebrum, the brainstem and the cerebellum.
The brain of a human being plays significant role, as it controls most of the activities of the human body.
The brain is located inside the head, and protected by the skull bones.
The brain consists of more than 86 billion neurons and almost equal number of other cells as well.
Brain activity is made possible because of the interconnections of all the neurons that are linked together.
The study of brain functions is known as neuroscience.
An adult human brain weighs about 1.2 to 1.4 kg (i.e. average weight); which is about 2% of the total body weight.
A human brain is primarily classified as the −
Forebrain is largely made up of cerebrum, thalamus, hypothalamus and pineal gland.
Midbrain is largely made up of a portion of the brainstem.
Hindbrain largely made up of the remaining brainstem, cerebellum and pons.
Further, the (brain) hemisphere is conventionally classified into four lobes namely −
The naming is done according to the skull bones that overlie them.
Divided into nearly symmetrical left and right hemispheres by a deep groove, the cerebrum is the largest part of the human brain.
Cerebrum normally controls higher brain functions including language, logic, reasoning, and creativity.
Major functions of human brain are −
Perceive or sense the signal coming from the (external) environment
Giving sense of feelings and emotion
Regulating and controlling the human behaviors
Regulating and controlling the physical action
Regulating the memory function
Process of thinking (and other cognitive process)
The human Skeleton system is an internal structure that provides support and strength to human body.
At the birth, there are about 300 bones, but over period time, specifically at maturity, the number of bones is 206.
Human Skeleton system broadly classified into −
Axial skeleton and
Let’s discuss them in brief −
With the total 80 bones, the axial skeleton consists of −
Skull and other associated bones
With total 126 bones, the appendicular skeleton consists of −
The image given below illustrates the names of the major bones of a human body.
Following are the major functions of skeleton system −
It provides support to the body
It protects many parts of the body, e.g. the skull protects brain; the vertebrae protect spinal cord; the rib cage protects lungs; the spine protects heart, and the sternum protects blood vessels
The skeleton system helps in movement
The skeleton system helps in the production of blood cells
The skeleton system stores minerals
The skeleton system helps in endocrine regulation
The endocrine system is study of the glands of an organism that secrete hormones directly into the circulatory system.
The organs through which the life running hormones are secreted are known as endocrine glands or simply ductless glands.
The hormone secreting glands are located in different parts of a human body (see the image given below).
The scientific study of the endocrine system and its disorders is known as endocrinology.
The hormone is a complex but very important chemical substance released by the different glands in the body.
The hormone is mainly made up of amino acid, catecholemines, and steroids.
It is the hormone which is responsible for the overall growth and development; safety and security; behavior, sexual characteristics, and reproductive activities of a human body.
Following are the major types of endocrine system −
Reproductive Gland (Ovaries & Testes Glands)
Let’s discuss these glands in brief −
It is located at the base of the brain.
It releases Growth hormone-releasing hormone, Somatostatin hormone, etc., important for the growth.
It is located at the base of the brain.
It releases melatonin hormone helpful in lowering the core body temperature.
With the size of a pea, the pituitary gland is found at the base of the human brain.
The average weight of pituitary gland is about 0.5 grams.
It is also known as hypophysis.
Following are the hormones secreted by the pituitary gland −
Growth hormone (somatotropin) − It is abbreviated as GH and it stimulates growth and cell reproduction.
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (thyrotropin) − It is abbreviated as THS and it stimulates iodine absorption by thyroid gland.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (corticotropin) − It is abbreviated as ACTH and it stimulates corticosteroid and androgen.
Beta-endorphin − it inhibits perception of pain.
Prolactin − it stimulates milk synthesis and release from mammary glands.
Thyroid gland is located just below the larynx in the throat (pharynx).
The hormone secreted by the thyroid gland is known as thyroxine.
Following are the important hormones secreted by the thyroid gland −
Triiodothyronine(T3) − It stimulated body oxygen and energy consumption. It also promotes protein synthesis.
Thyroxine − It increases the basal metabolic rate.
Calcitonin − It stimulates osteoblasts and bone construction.
It is located in the neck of a human body.
It releases parathyroid hormone that helps in regulating the amount of calcium in the blood as well as within the bones.
Adrenal gland is found above the kidneys.
It releases the following major hormones −
Glucocorticoids − It stimulates gluconeogenesis and fat-breakdown in adipose tissue.
Mineralocorticoids − It stimulates active sodium reabsorption in kidneys.
Adrenaline − It increases the supply of oxygen and glucose to the brain and muscles.
Dopamine − It increases heart rate and blood pressure.
Enkephalin − It regulates pain.
Pancreas gland is located in the abdominal cavity (behind the stomach).
Pancreas is a mixocrine gland, as it releases both enzymes and hormones.
It releases the following major hormones −
Insulin − It regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.
Glucagon − It raises the concentration of glucose in the bloodstream.
Somatostatin − It inhibits release of insulin and glucagon.
The reproductive gland is classified as Testes in Male and Ovary in Female.
Testes releases androgens (hormone) that help in strengthening muscle, increasing bone density, maturation of sex organs.
Ovary releases progesterone hormone that helps during pregnancy period.
The diseases caused by either the deficiency or excessive of hormones is known as endocrine diseases.
The branch of medicine that studies the endocrine disorders is known as endocrinology.
The following table illustrates the endocrine diseases −
|Glucose Homeostasis Disorders|
|Diabetes Mellitus||Type 1 Diabetes||Increases sugar levels|
|Type 2 Diabetes|
|Hypoglycemia||Idiopathic hypoglycemia||Decreases sugar level (below normal)|
|Glucagonoma||Cause: Because of the overproduction of glucagon hormone||tumor of the pancreas|
|Goiter||Cause: deficiency of iodine||swelling of the neck or larynx|
|Hyperthyroidism (excessive production of thyroid hormone)||Graves-Basedow disease||Muscle weakness, sleeping problems, diarrhea, weight loss, etc.|
|Toxic multinodular goitre|
|(low release of thyroid hormone)||Poor ability to tolerate cold, a feeling of tiredness, constipation, depression, and weight gain|
|Thyroiditis||Hashimoto’s thyroiditis||Inflammation of the thyroid gland|
|Thyroid cancer||Nodule in the thyroid region of the neck|
|Metabolic Bone Disease|
|Parathyroid gland disorders||Primary hyperparathyroidism||Alterations in the blood calcium levels and bone metabolism|
|Paget's disease of bone||Weakening of bones|
|Rickets and Osteomalacia||Child disease (because of vitamin D deficiency)|
|Pituitary Gland Disorders|
|Diabetes insipidus||Excessive thirst and excretion of large amounts of severely dilute urine|
|Pituitary tumors||Pituitary adenomas|
|Sex Hormone Disorders|
|Androgen insensitivity syndromes|
|Genetic and chromosomal disorders||Kallmann syndrome|
|Acquired disorders||Ovarian failure|
|Disorders of Puberty||Delayed puberty|
|Menstrual function or fertility disorders||Amenorrhea|
|Polycystic ovary syndrome|
Consisting of oxygen (O), carbon (C), and hydrogen (H), carbohydrate is a biological molecule.
Carbohydrate is one of the essential elements for the living organisms, as it plays various important roles.
Carbohydrate is the main source of energy, as about two-third energy requirement of living beings is fulfilled by it.
Glucose, sugar, and starch are the important examples of carbohydrate.
Carbohydrates naturally are occurring in wide variety of foods, such as −
Sugar that we eat in our everyday life is mainly sucrose (table sugar).
Sucrose is added in many food items while preparing, e.g. jam, biscuits, cakes, energy drinks, etc.
Further, many fruits naturally contain glucose and fructose.
Glycogen is another type of carbohydrate that found in the liver and muscle.
Cellulose found in the cell wall of plant cells is carbohydrate.
The following table illustrates major categories and sub-categories of carbohydrate −
|Sugar||Monosaccharides||Glucose, fructose, xylose, galactose|
|Disaccharides||Sucrose, lactose, maltose, trehalose|
|Other oligosaccharides||Raffinose, stachyose, fructo-oligosaccharides|
|Polysaccharides||Starch||Amylose, amylopectin, modified starches|
|Non-starch polysaccharides||Cellulose, hemicellulose, pectins, hydrocolloids|
Following are the major functions of carbohydrates −
Carbohydrates provide energy required for the proper function of the body.
Carbohydrates also store food in the body for the contingency period.
Carbohydrates form nucleic acids.
Carbohydrates also support skeleton system of animals.
Carbohydrates provide sweetness and flavor.
Carbohydrates break down the fatty acid.
Proteins, which are basically biomolecules, play wide range of functions in the body of a living organism.
Proteins are made up of tiny elements of different types of amino acids.
A sequence of amino acid residues in a protein is known particularly by the sequence of a gene; gene is encoded in the genetic code.
After formation, proteins exist for a fixed period of time and are then degraded and recycled.
The proteins get recycled by the cell's machinery by the process of protein turnover.
Most of the proteins contain linear polymers made up of series of up to 20 different L-α-amino acids.
The amino acids in a polypeptide chain are connected by peptide bonds (see the image given below).
The peptide bond, usually, has two resonance forms, which contribute some double-bond characters.
Most of the proteins illustrate unique 3-dimensional structures (see image given below).
However, proteins have not a rigid structure, but rather, proteins may vary between several related structures especially when they perform their functions.
Following are the major functions of proteins −
In the cell, proteins are the chief actors that carry out the duties defined by the information encoded in genes.
Proteins are essential for the overall body growth.
Proteins play a role of bio-catalyst and biotic regulator.
Proteins provide instant energy especially during the emergency period.
Proteins help in catalyzing the metabolic reactions.
Proteins are the essential elements in DNA replication.
Proteins actively help in transporting molecules from one location to another in the body.
Following are the major types of protein −
Enzymes − enzymes play important role especially during the breakdown of molecules. Enzymes are also required for the digestion and growth of the cell.
Structural Proteins − such type of proteins provide strength to cells, tissues, and organs.
Signaling Proteins − Such proteins facilitate cells to communicate with each other by providing signals.
Defensive Proteins − Such proteins help organisms to fight with infection and support damaged tissue in healing fast.
Hormone − Some hormones are proteins that help in metabolic activities.
Fat is a significant foodstuff for many forms of life.
Fats serve structural as well as metabolic functions.
The fats are molecules made up of glycerol and fatty acid.
Fat is an organic compound of hydrogen, carbon, oxygen.
Based on the number and bonding of the carbon atoms, fats and oils, are categorized in the aliphatic chain.
Following are the major functions of Fats −
Fat is a vital dietary requirement.
The fat is usually the stored source of energy in the body that remained store beneath the skin.
Fat acts a protective layer especially in the human body and provide protection.
Some of the vitamins such as vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, and vitamin K are fat-soluble, which means they can only be absorbed, digested, and transported in conjunction with the fats.
Fats actively help in maintaining the healthy skin and hair.
Fats insulate body organs against external shock.
Fats also maintain body temperature.
Fats promote healthy cell function.
Following are the major types of Fats −
The fats that remain in the liquid form at room temperature are known as unsaturated fats.
Unsaturated fats are beneficial for health, as it improves blood cholesterol levels, stabilize heart beats, etc.
Unsaturated fats are commonly found in vegetable oils, nuts, and many seeds.
Saturated fats have no double bonds between the carbons found in its chain.
Saturated fats can easily solidify and typically found in solid form at room temperature.
Saturated fats are found in animals’ meat, cheese, ice cream, etc.
Vitamin is one of the most essential organic compounds that organisms require for the growth and maintenance of the body.
Unlike other nutrients, vitamins are classified by their biological and chemical activity, instead of their structure.
The term vitamin was derived from a compound word namely "vitamin."
The Polish biochemist Kazimierz Funk, first used the compound word ‘vitamin’ in 1912.
Usually, vitamins are represented by the English capital letters, e.g. A, B, C, E, etc.
The body of a human being stores different vitamins widely; the vitamins A, D, and B12 are stored in substantial amounts, generally in the liver.
Deficiency of vitamins causes disease.
Based on solubility, vitamins are classified as water soluble vitamins and fat soluble vitamins.
Water-soluble vitamins can dissolve easily in water.
On the other hand, fat-soluble vitamins can be dissolved easily in fat.
Further, fat-soluble vitamins get absorbed easily through the intestinal tract.
By the time, thirteen vitamins are comprehensively recognized.
The following table illustrates the list of vitamins with their properties −
|Vitamins||Chemical Name||Solubility||Deficiency disease|
|Vitamin A||Retinol||Fat||Night blindness, keratomalacia, etc.|
|Vitamin B2||Riboflavin||Water||Ariboflavinosis, glossitis, etc.|
|Vitamin B5||Pantothenic acid||Water||Paresthesia|
|Vitamin B9||Folic acid||Water||Megaloblastic anemia|
|Vitamin B12||Cyanocobalamin||Water||Pernicious anemia|
|Vitamin C||Ascorbic acid||Water||Scurvy|
|Vitamin E||Tocopherols||Fat||Hemolytic anemia (in children)|
|Vitamin K||Phylloquinone||Fat||Bleeding diathesis|
Vitamins have different biochemical functions, significant of them are −
Like hormone, vitamin D regulates and helps in mineral metabolism
Vitamin D also regulates and helps cells and tissue growth
Vitamin C and vitamin E act as antioxidants
Vitamin B complex acts as co-enzymes or the precursors of enzymes and helps them as catalysts in metabolic activities.
Mineral is a chemical element essentially required as nutrient for the proper functioning of the body and healthy life.
Minerals cannot be made by living organisms, rather it occurs in the Earth naturally.
Most of the minerals that required for the proper function of a human life come from green plants, animals, and from drinking water.
Calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and magnesium are the five major minerals in the human body.
Minerals are present in the blood of a healthy human being at certain mass.
The following table illustrates the list of major minerals along with their salient features −
|Potassium||Hypokalemia||Sweet potato, potato, tomato, lentils, banana, carrot, orange, etc.|
|Sodium||Hyponatremia||Table salt, sea vegetable, milk, etc.|
|Calcium||Hypocalcaemia||Eggs, canned fish, dairy products, nuts, etc.|
|Phosphorus||Hypophosphatemia||Red meat, fish, bread, dairy products, rice, oats, etc.|
|Magnesium||Hypomagnesemia||Legumes, nuts, seeds, spinach, peanut butter, etc.|
|Iron||Anaemia||Meat, seafood, beans, nuts, etc.|
|Zinc||Hair loss, diarrhea||Red meat, nuts, dairy products, etc.|
|Manganese||Osteoporosis||Grains, nuts, leafy vegetables, legumes, seeds, tea, coffee|
|Copper||Copper deficiency||Seafood, oysters, nuts, seeds|
|Iodine||Goitre||Grains, eggs, iodized salt|
|Chromium||Chromium deficiency||Broccoli, grape juice, meat, etc.|
|Molybdenum||Molybdenum deficiency||Legumes, whole grains, nuts|
|Selenium||Selenium deficiency||Brazil nuts, meat, seafoods, grains, dairy products, etc.|
The following table illustrates the major Genetic Terminologies along with their brief explanations −
|Sr.No.||Terminology & Definition/Description|
An alternative form of a gene
A silent gene
a rare genetically inherited form of mental retardation
Synonymous with somatic chromosomes
An exceptionally rare person composed of the cells derived from different zygotes
Rod-shaped or thread-like structures located within the cell nucleus that carry genes encoded by DNA
A recombinant DNA molecule along with the gene of interest
Having a common ancestor, i.e., blood relations
The exchange of genetic material between a pair of homologous chromosomes
Mating of two genetically different plants (but of the same species).
Twins produced from two separate ova, which are separately fertilized
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
Composed of nucleic acids, DNA encodes the genes that facilitate genetic information to be passed to offspring.
Genetic change in a population of organisms over period of time
A reproductive sex cell (i.e. ovum or sperm)
Units of inheritance typically occurring at specific locations (a chromosome)
All of the genes in all of the individuals in a breeding population
The transference of genes from one population to another
Evolution, or change in gene pool frequencies, resulting from a random chance
Study of gene structure, action, and the patterns of inheritance of traits from parent to offspring
The full genetic complement of a species
The epigenetic phenomenon by which certain genes are expressed in a parent-of-origin-specific manner
Genetic constitution of a cell (of an individual organism)
Genetically inherited metabolic disorder (or a type of arthritis)
Genetic disorder (largely inherited), problem in blood clotting
A cell containing two different alleles of a gene
An inherited disorder that results into death of brain cells
Combining the qualities of two animals or plants of different breeds, varieties, species (also known as crossbreed)
Change that occurs in DNA sequence
Observable characteristics or traits of an individual resulting from the interaction between genotype and the environment
When one gene influences two or more apparently unrelated phenotypic traits
An inherited disease categorized by recurring thick, reddish patches on skin
Genes occurring on the same chromosome
The fertilized egg is known as zygote
The following table illustrates the number of chromosomes present in respective organisms −
|Organism||Scientific Name||No. of Chromosomes|
|Red viscacha rat||Tympanoctomys barrerae||102|
|Great white shark||Carcharodon carcharias||82|
|African wild dog||Lycaon pictus||78|
|Chicken||Gallus gallus domesticus||78|
|Dingo||Canis lupus dingo||78|
|Dog||Canis lupus familiaris||78|
|Golden Jackal||Canis aureus||78|
|Gray wolf||Canis lupus||78|
|Maned wolf||Chrysocyon brachyurus||76|
|American black bear||Ursus americanus||74|
|Asiatic black bear||Ursus thibetanus||74|
|Brown bear||Ursus arctos||74|
|Polar bear||Ursus maritimus||74|
|Sloth bear||Melursus ursinus||74|
|Sun bear||Helarctos malayanus||74|
|Bat-eared fox||Otocyon megalotis||72|
|Black nightshade||Solanum nigrum||72|
|White-tailed deer||Odocoileus virginianus||70|
|Elk (Wapiti)||Cervus canadensis||68|
|Red deer||Cervus elaphus||68|
|Gray fox||Urocyon cinereoargenteus||66|
|Raccoon dog||Nyctereutes procyonoides||66|
|Fennec fox||Vulpes zerda||64|
|Horse||Equus ferus caballus||64|
|Spotted spunk||Spilogale x||64|
|Donkey||Equus africanus asinus||62|
|Gypsy moth||Lymantria dispar dispar||62|
|Bengal fox||Vulpes bengalensis||62|
|American bison||Bison bison||60|
|Goat||Capra aegagrus hircus||60|
|Capuchin monkey||Cebus x||54|
|Sheep||Ovis orientalis aries||54|
|Water buffalo||Bubalus bubalis||50|
|Sable antelope||Hippotragus niger||46|
|European rabbit||Oryctolagus cuniculus||44|
|Giant panda||Ailuropoda melanoleuca||42|
|Rhesus monkey||Macaca mulatta||42|
|Yellowfever mosquito||Aedes aegypti||6|
|Jack jumper ant||Myrmecia pilosula||2|
The following table illustrates the diseases caused by virus −
|Disease Name||Organs Affected||Transmission|
|Adenovirus Infections||Lungs, Eyes||Droplets, Contact Droplets|
|Respiratory Syncytial Disease||Respiratory Tract||Droplets|
|Rhinovirus Infections||Upper Respiratory Tract||Droplets, Contact|
|Herpes Simplex||Skin, Pharynx, Genital organs||Contact|
|Chicken pox ( Varicella)||Skin, Nervous System||Droplets, Contact|
|Measles (Rubeola)||Respiratory Tract, Skin||Droplets, Contact|
|German Measles ( Rubella)||Skin||Droplets, Contact|
|Mumps (Epidemic Parotitis)||Salivary Glands, Blood||Droplets|
|Small Pox (Variola)||Skin, Blood||Contact, Droplets|
|Warts Kawasaki Disease||Skin|
|Yellow Fever||Liver, Blood||Mosquito|
|Dengue Fever||Blood, Muscles||Mosquito|
|Hepatitis A||Liver||Food, Water, Contact|
|Hepatitis B||Liver||Contact with body Fluids|
|NANB Hepatitis||Liver||Contact with body Fluids|
|Viral Gastroenteritis||Intestine||Food, Water|
|Viral Fevers||Blood||Contact, arthropods|
|Cytomegalovirus Disease||Blood, Lungs||Contact, Congenital transfer|
|Shingles (varicella zoster virus)||Skin|
|AIDS||T-lymphocytes||Contact with body Fluids|
|Rabies||Brain, Spinal cord||Contact with body Fluids|
|Polio||Intestine, Brain, Spinal Cord||Food, Water, Contact|
|Slow Virus Disease||Brain|
|Viral pneumonia||infection in lung|
|Ebola||Whole body||bodily fluids|
The following table illustrates the diseases caused by bacteria −
|Disease Name||Bacteria Name||Affected organs|
|Cholera||Vibrio cholerae||Small intestine|
|Anthrax||Bacillus Anthrasis||Skin, lung, and bowel disease|
|Diphtheria||Corynebacterium diphtheriae||Mucous membranes of your nose and throat|
|Syphilis||Treponema pallidum||Genital part, lips, mouth, or anus|
|Tetanus||Clostridium tetani||Muscle (affected), nervous system|
|Typhoid fever||Salmonella typhi||Almost of whole part of the body|
|Disease Name||Caused by||Affected organs|
|Athlete’s foot||Epidermophyton floccosum (fungi)||Skin on the feet|
|Malaria||Plasmodium vivax (Protozoa)|
|Amoebic dysentery||Entamoeba histolytica||Intestine|
|Hookworm disease||Ancylostoma duodenale||Intestine and lungs|
|Roundworm disease||Ascaris lumbricoides||Intestine|
|Blood fluke disease||Schistossoma mansoni||Skin, lymph, liver, and spleen|
The following table illustrates the different branches of biology with their brief description −
|Anatomy||Study of the internal structure of an organism|
|Aerobiology||Study of airborne microorganisms|
|Agronomy||Study of soil management and crop production|
|Agrostology||Study of grasses|
|Araneology||Study of spiders|
|Actinobiology||Study of the effects of radiation upon living organisms|
|Angiology||Study of the diseases of the circulatory system and of the lymphatic system|
|Bioinformatics||of collecting and analyzing complex biological data including genetic codes through computer technology|
|Biotechnology||Use of cellular and biomolecular processes to develop technologies and products, which ultimately help to improve human lives and the health of the planet.|
|Biochemistry||Study of chemical and physio-chemical processes and substances, which occur within the living organisms.|
|Batrachology||Study of amphibians including frogs and toads|
|Bioclimatology||Study of the interactions between the biosphere and the Earth's atmosphere on time scales|
|Botany||Study of plants|
|Bryology||Study of mosses and liverworts|
|Cytology||Study of the structure and function of plant and animal cells.|
|Cryobiology||Study of biological material or systems at temperatures below normal|
|Chromatology||Study of colors|
|Cetology||Study of whales, dolphins, and porpoises|
|Chronobiology||Study of periodic (cyclic) phenomena in living organisms|
|Conchology||Study of mollusc shells|
|Chondrology||Study of the cartilage|
|Craniology||Study of the shape and size of the skulls of different human races|
|Cardiology||Study of the diseases and abnormalities of the heart|
|Dendrology||Study of trees|
|Dermatology||Study of skin|
|Desmology||Study of structures and anatomy of ligaments|
|Embryology||Study of the prenatal development of gametes (sex cells), fertilization, and development of embryos and fetuses.|
|Ecology||Study of interactions among organisms and their environment|
|Ethology||Study of animal behaviors|
|Entomology||Study of insects|
|Etiology||study of causation, or origination (largely of diseases)|
|Epigenetics||Study of the changes in a chromosome that affect gene activity and expression (specifically phenotype change and NOT genotype changes)|
|Ethnobotany||Study of a geographic region's plants and their possible uses through the traditional knowledge|
|Forestry||Study creating, managing, using, conserving, and repairing forests|
|Gynaecology||Study of medical practice that deals with the health of the female reproductive systems|
|Gerontology||Study of the process of ageing and old age problems|
|Genetics||Study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity|
|Genecology||Study of genetic variation of species and communities in comparison to their population|
|Genetic engineering||Study of developing technique of direct manipulation of an organism's genome by using biotechnology|
|Horticulture||Study of practice of garden cultivation|
|Helminthology||Study of parasitic worms|
|Herpetology||Study of reptiles (including amphibians)|
|Hepatology||Study of liver|
|Haematology||Study of blood, its problems and treatments|
|Histology||Study of tissue|
|Ichthyology||Study of fishes|
|Ichnology||Study of traces of organismal behavior|
|Kalology||Study of beauty|
|Lepidopterology||Study of moths and the butterflies|
|Limnology||Study of inland waters (emphasizing of biological, physical, and chemical features)|
|Limnobiology||Study of animals and plants of fresh water|
|Molecular biology||Study of the structure and function of the macromolecules (such as proteins and nucleic acids)|
|Malacology||Study of the Mollusca|
|Mycology||Study of fungi|
|Nephrology||Study of kidney|
|Neurology||Study of nervous system|
|Ornithology||Study of birds|
|Ophthalmology||Study of eye|
|Osteology||Study of skeleton system|
|Palaeozoology||Study of animal fossils|
|Physiology||Study of normal functioning of living organisms|
|Pathology||Study of disease and a major field in modern medicine and diagnosis|
|Palaeobotany||Study of plant fossils|
|Phycology||Study of algae|
|Pomology||Study of fruits|
|Phrenology||Study of specific functions of brain|
|Sedimentology||Study of sand, silt, clay, etc.|
|Serpentology||Study of snakes|
|Saurology||Study of lizards|
|Sitology||Study of food, diet, and nutrition|
|Spelaeology||Study of caves|
|Taxonomy||Study of nomenclature (classification) of animals|
|Trophology||Study of nutrition (for healthy health)|
|Traumatology||Study of wounds and injuries caused by accidents (or violence)|
|Zoogeography||Study of distribution of animals|
|Zymology||Study of the biochemical process of fermentation and its practical uses|
|Zootechny||Study of domestication of animals (includes breeding, genetics, nutrition, and housing)|
|Zoonosology||Study of animal diseases'|
|Zoology||Study of animals|
The following table illustrates important inventions and discoveries in Biology −
|Name of inventions/discoveries||Discoverers & Inventors|
|Systemic circulation of blood||William Harvey|
|Observation of microorganisms||Antony van Leeuwenhoek|
|Sex hormones||Eugen Stainak|
|Simple microscope||Anton van Leeuwenhoek|
|First test tube baby||Robert Edward and Patrick Steptoe|
|CT scan||Godfrey Hounsfield & Allan Cormack|
|DNA||Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins|
|DNA Structure||James Watson and Francis Crick|
|DNA Fingerprinting||Alec Jeffreys|
|Electrocardiogram (ECG)||Willem Einthoven|
|5 kingdom classification||R. H. Whittaker|
|Genetic code||Marshall Nirenberg and Heinrich J. Matthaei|
|Genetic drift||Sewall Wright|
|Father of heart transplantation||Norman Shumway|
|Heart transplantation first performed||Christiaan Barnard|
|Insulin||Frederick Banting and Charles H. Best|
|Malaria Parasite||Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran|
|Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)||Damadian|
|Open heart surgery||Dr. Daniel Hale Williams. And Dr. Daniel Williams|
|Polio vaccine||Jonas Salk and a team|
|Rh factor in human blood||Dr. Alexander S. Wiener and Karl Landsteiner|
|Blood group (ABO group)||Karl Landsteiner|
|Binomial nomenclature||Carl Linnaeus|
|Bacteria (& protozoa)||Van Leeuwenhoek|
|Aspirin||Felix Hoffmann at Bayer in Germany|
|Jarvik-7 (first artificial heart)||Willem Johan Kolff and Robert Jarvik|
|Amoeba||August Johann Rösel von Rosenhof|
|Oxygen in respiration and photosynthesis||Joseph Priestley, Antoine Lavoisier and Jan Ingenhousz|
|Animal electricity||Luigi Galvani|
|Cell Theory||Schleiden and Schwann|
|Mutations||Thomas Hunt Morgan and Lilian Vaughan Morgan|
|Virus||Dmitri Ivanovsky & Martinus Beijerinck|
Cori, a Czech-American biochemist, was the first woman to be awarded the Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
She received the prize in 1947.
She was the third woman and first American woman who won a Nobel Prize in science.
She received the award for her work namely “the mechanism by which glycogen—a derivative of glucose—is broken down in muscle tissue into lactic acid and then resynthesized in the body and stored as a source of energy (known as the Cori cycle).”
The following table illustrates some of the eminent Nobel Prize winners −
|Emil Adolf von Behring||Germany (1901)||Serum therapy|
|Sir Ronald Ross||UK (1902)||Worked on malaria|
|Ivan Petrovich Pavlov||Russia (1904)||Physiology of digestion|
|Albrecht Kossel||Germany (1910)||Cell Chemistry|
|Allvar Gullstrand||Sweden (1911)||Dioptrics of the eye|
|Alexis Carrel||France (1912)||Vascular suture and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs|
|Archibald Vivian Hill||UK (1922)||Production of heat in the muscle|
|Sir Frederick Grant Banting & John James Rickard Macleod||Canada & UK (1923)||Discovery of insulin|
|Karl Landsteiner||Austria (1930)||Discovery of human blood groups|
|Thomas Hunt Morgan||US (1933)||Role played by the chromosome in heredity|
|Carl Peter Henrik Dam||Denmark (1943)||Discovery of vitamin K|
|Sir Alexander Fleming||UK (1945)||Discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases|
|Sir Ernst Boris Chain||UK (1945)|
|Howard Walter Florey||Austria (1945)|
|Carl Ferdinand Cori||US (1947)||Discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen|
|Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz|
|Max Theiler||South Africa (1951)||Yellow fever|
|Selman Abraham Waksman||US (1952)||Discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis|
|Joshua Lederberg||US (1958)||Genetic recombination|
|Peyton Rous||US (1966)||Discovery of tumor-inducing viruses|
|Charles Brenton Huggins||US (1966)||Hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer|
|Har Gobind Khorana||India & US (1968)||Interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis|
|Marshall W. Nirenberg||US (1968)|
|Robert W. Holley||US (1968)|
|Albert Claude||Belgium (1974)||Structural and functional organization of the cell|
|Christian de Duve|
|George E. Palade||Romania (1974)|
|Baruch S. Blumberg||US (1976)||Origin and dissemination of infectious diseases|
|D. Carleton Gajdusek|
|Michael S. Brown||US (1985)||Regulation of cholesterol metabolism|
|Joseph L. Goldstein|
|Sir Richard J. Roberts||UK (1993)||Discovery of split genes|
|Phillip A. Sharp||US (1993)|
|Paul Lauterbur||US (2003)||Magnetic resonance imaging|
|Sir Peter Mansfield||UK (2003)|
|Andrew Z. Fire||US (2006)||Discovery of RNA interference|
|Craig C. Mello|
|Harald zur Hausen||Germany (2008)||Human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer|
|Françoise Barré-Sinoussi||France (2008)||Discovery of human immunodeficiency virus|
|Sir Robert G. Edwards||UK (2010)||Development of in vitro fertilization|
|Tu Youyou||China (2015)||Discovery of a novel therapy against Malaria|
|Yoshinori Ohsumi||Japan (2016)||Mechanisms for autophagy|