- Biology Notes for UPSC IAS Prelims (Part II)
- Biology - Home
- Biology - Classification of Organisms
- Biology - Cell Division
- Biology - Virus
- Biology - Bacteria
- Biology - Fungi
- Biology - The Roots
- Biology - The Plant Stem
- Biology - The Plant Leaf
- Biology - The Flowers
- Biology - The Fruit
- Biology - Plant Diseases
- Biology - The Blood
- Biology - Blood Group
- Biology - Human Brain
- Biology - Skeleton System
- Biology - Endocrine System
- Biology - Endocrine Diseases
- Biology - Carbohydrate
- Biology - Proteins
- Biology - Fats
- Biology - Vitamins
- Biology - Minerals
- Biology - Genetic Terminology
- Organisms & their Chromosome Counts
- Biology - Viral Diseases
- Biology - Bacterial Diseases
- Branches of Biology
- Inventions & Discoveries in Biology
- Nobel Prize in Biology
- Biology Useful Resources
- Biology Part 2 - Online Quiz
- Biology Part 2 - Online Test
- Biology Part 2 - Quick Guide
- Biology - Useful Resources
- Biology - Discussion
- Selected Reading
- UPSC IAS Exams Notes
- Developer's Best Practices
- Questions and Answers
- Effective Resume Writing
- HR Interview Questions
- Computer Glossary
- Who is Who
Biology - Bacteria
Bacteria normally comprises a large number of prokaryotic microorganisms.
Bacteria most probably were among the first life that formed to appear on the Earth.
Bacteria belong to Monera kingdom.
Bacteria usually inhabit in all range of environments, such as soil, water, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste, and the deep portions of Earth's crust.
The study of bacteria is known as bacteriology.
Bacteria play an important role in many stages of the nutrient cycle by recycling nutrients including the fixation of nitrogen from the atmosphere.
Bacteria grow to a fixed size and after maturity reproduce through asexual reproduction i.e. basically binary fission.
Under favorable conditions, bacteria can grow and divide very swiftly, and the bacterial populations can double merely in every 9.8 minutes.
When viruses that infect bacteria is known as Bacteriophages.
In order to modify themselves (to survive in the adverse environment), Bacteria frequently secrete chemicals into their environment.
Advantages of Bacteria
Bacteria are advantageous in many ways, such as −
Bacteria help in atmospheric nitrogen fixation.
Bacteria decompose dead plants and animals and clean the environment.
Bacteria are the major element that convert milk into curd and wine into vinegar.
Some specific types of bacteria are used in making proteins.
Some types of bacteria are also used as pesticides.
Disadvantages of Bacteria
Bacteria cause many diseases and infection to living organisms.
Bacteria cause many diseases, significant of them are −
Anthrax - caused by Bacillus anthracis
Brucellosis - caused by Brucella abortus
Botulism - caused by Clostridium botulinum
Coliform diseases - caused by Escherichia coli
Leprosy - caused by Mycobacterium leprae
Plague - caused by Yersinia pestis
Typhoid fever - caused by Salmonella typhi
Trachoma - caused by Chlamydia trachomatis
Diphtheria - caused by Corynebacterium diphtheria
Tetanus - caused by Clostridium tetani
Tuberculosis - caused by Mycobacterium bovis
Cholera - caused by Vibrio cholera
Syphilis - caused by Treponema pallidum
Whooping cough - caused by Bordetella pertussis
Gonrhoea - caused by Gonococcus
Potato wilt - caused by Pseudomonas solanacearum
Blight of rice - caused by Xanthomonas orzae
Fire blight of apple - caused by Invenia