Biology - Genetic Terminology


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  • The following table illustrates the major Genetic Terminologies along with their brief explanations −

Sr.No. Terminology & Definition/Description
1

Allele

An alternative form of a gene

2

Amorph

A silent gene

3

Angelman syndrome

a rare genetically inherited form of mental retardation

4

Autosome

Synonymous with somatic chromosomes

5

Chimera

An exceptionally rare person composed of the cells derived from different zygotes

6

Chromosome

Rod-shaped or thread-like structures located within the cell nucleus that carry genes encoded by DNA

7

Cloned gene

A recombinant DNA molecule along with the gene of interest

8

Consanguinity

Having a common ancestor, i.e., blood relations

9

Crossing over

The exchange of genetic material between a pair of homologous chromosomes

10

Cross-pollination

Mating of two genetically different plants (but of the same species).

11

Dizygotic twins

Twins produced from two separate ova, which are separately fertilized

12

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

Composed of nucleic acids, DNA encodes the genes that facilitate genetic information to be passed to offspring.

13

Evolution

Genetic change in a population of organisms over period of time

14

Gamete

A reproductive sex cell (i.e. ovum or sperm)

15

Gene

Units of inheritance typically occurring at specific locations (a chromosome)

16

Gene Pool

All of the genes in all of the individuals in a breeding population

17

Gene Flow

The transference of genes from one population to another

18

Genetic Drift

Evolution, or change in gene pool frequencies, resulting from a random chance

19

Genetics

Study of gene structure, action, and the patterns of inheritance of traits from parent to offspring

20

Genome

The full genetic complement of a species

21

Genomic imprinting

The epigenetic phenomenon by which certain genes are expressed in a parent-of-origin-specific manner

22

Genotype

Genetic constitution of a cell (of an individual organism)

23

Gout

Genetically inherited metabolic disorder (or a type of arthritis)

24

Hemophilia

Genetic disorder (largely inherited), problem in blood clotting

25

Heterozygous

A cell containing two different alleles of a gene

26

Huntington's disease

An inherited disorder that results into death of brain cells

27

Hybrid

Combining the qualities of two animals or plants of different breeds, varieties, species (also known as crossbreed)

28

Mutation

Change that occurs in DNA sequence

29

Observable characteristics or traits of an individual resulting from the interaction between genotype and the environment

30

Pleiotropy

When one gene influences two or more apparently unrelated phenotypic traits

31

Psoriasis

An inherited disease categorized by recurring thick, reddish patches on skin

32

Syntenic

Genes occurring on the same chromosome

33

Zygote

The fertilized egg is known as zygote



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