What are the Design Issues for the Layers of Computer Networks?

In data exchange between devices, communication procedures require to have the following to manage these factors of the exchange procedures −

Physical Data Encoding

The data exchanged between two devices are physically transported using electrical signals considering particular coding methods. For two systems to accurately exchange data, they should consistently execute and translate data-carrying electrical signals.


This facilitates a parallel connection for various unconnected conversations.

Transmission Media

These concerns deal with the type of media used (fiber, copper, wireless, etc.), prescribed by the desirable bandwidth, protection to noise, and attenuation properties.

Flow Control

The data Communication procedure assigns memory resources, generally referred to as interaction buffers, to benefit from communication and data acceptance. It holds a quick sender from the sink a slow receiver with data. Some feedback from the receiver is required.

Mechanism for identifying senders and receivers

Some address both machines and processes to see whether the data-carrying signal is designed for itself or another computer on the network or a transmission (a message proposed for all systems).

Error Control

The receiving end after receiving the data should also be adequate for managing with and identifying the corruption. If any, this corruption can be in the structure of noise or electromagnetic conflict.

Logical Channels

Protocols should offer a minimum of two logical channels for each connection.

Message sequencing or ordering

The message is broken into a fragment and is checked before communication. There must be a structure to put them back in sequence at the receiving end. These packets can take several routes to arrive at a destination system and thus not certainly be ordered.


The routing method calls on executing several cooperative phases in both routers and servers whose main interest is to enable the intelligent delivery of information to its final designation. The data network can take function between any two departments whether or not both apply to a similar network, as displayed in the diagram below −

Inter-process dialogue control

When two software enlists in the network of data, they create a session between them. Therefore, it requires to control the flow and the management of data flow between them for the session’s period. It depends on the involved application’s nature; the dialogue type can be the full-duplex, half-duplex or simplex communication mode.

Session Recovery

The other application-oriented business is the facility to retrieve from failures at a minimum value reliably. This can be implemented by supporting a check format, allowing the resumption of actions since the previous checkpoint.

Presentation Problems

Whenever two or more broadcasting software run on multiple platforms, the other interest appears about the difference in the syntax of the information they exchange.

Updated on: 04-May-2021

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