Transmitting the data in the form of packets over the internet is called casting.
The different types of casting are as follows −
Unicast − Transmitting data from one host to another host (one-one)
Broad cast − Transmitting data from one host to many host (one-all)
Multicast − Transmitting data from one host to a particular group of host (one-many).
Let us see each casting type in detail −
Transmitting data from one source host to one destination host is called a unicast. It is called as a one to one transmission.
For example − source Host IP Address 192.168.20.1 sending data to destination Host having IP Address 18.104.22.168
Transmitting data from one source host to all other hosts present in the same or other network is called broadcast. It is called a one to all transmission.
Broadcast is classified into two types, which are as follows −
Limited Broadcast − Transmitting data from one source host to all other hosts present in the same network is called a limited broadcast.
In Limited Broad casting if the destination address is 255.255.255.255 then the packet will be sent to all the hosts in the network.
Limited Broadcast address of any network
=255.255.255.255 = 11111111.11111111.11111111.11111111
For example − If the source IP address is 22.214.171.124 sending data to all other hosts present in the same network, then the destination address is 255.255.255.255.
Direct Broadcast − Transmitting data from source host to all other hosts present in different networks then it is called as direct broadcast.
In direct broadcast Host ID bits are all set to 1, Network ID is the IP address where all destination hosts are present.
For example − Source IP address is 126.96.36.199 sending data to all other nodes present at different network having IP address 188.8.131.52
Therefore source address= 184.108.40.206
Destination address= 220.127.116.11.
Transmitting data from one source host to a particular group of hosts that are interested in receiving the data is called Multicast. It is also called one to many transmissions.
For example − Sending messages on whatsapp to particular groups, video conferences, and sending email to groups of people.