- Trending Categories
- Data Structure
- Operating System
- C Programming
- Selected Reading
- UPSC IAS Exams Notes
- Developer's Best Practices
- Questions and Answers
- Effective Resume Writing
- HR Interview Questions
- Computer Glossary
- Who is Who
Computer Networks – Layers of OSI Model
The OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model is developed by the International Standard Organization. It is a layered framework for the design of network systems that allows communication between all types of computer systems. Its primary purpose is to provide a set of structural guidelines for exchanging information between computers, workstations, and networks.
The Seven Layers of OSI Model
|Layers No.||Layers Name||Function|
|Layer 1||Physical Layer||Transmission method used to propagate bits through a network|
|Layer 2||Data Link Layer||Frame formatting for transmitting data across a physical communication line.|
|Layer 3||Network Layer||Network addressing and packet transmission on the network.|
|Layer 4||Transport Layer||Data tracking as it moves through a network.|
|Layer 5||Session Layer||Job management tracking|
|Layer 6||Presentation Layer||Encoding the language used in transmission.|
|Layer 7||Application Layer||User networking applications and interfacing to the network.|
The Physical Layer is the lowermost layer in the OSI model and its major responsibility includes the actual propagation of the unstructured data bits (0’s and 1’s) across the network, from the physical layer of the sending device to the physical layer of the receiving device.
The Physical layer contains information in the form of bits. It transmits individual bits from one node to the next node. The transmission media defined by the physical layer include metallic cable, optical fiber, and the wireless radio-wave.
Physical Layer Includes −
- Bit Synchronization – Physical layer provides the bit synchronization of bits by providing a clock. This clock controls the sender and receiver providing synchronization at bit level.
- Bit Rate Control – Physical layer defines the transmission rate. The number of bits sent per second.
- Physical Topologies – The physical layer specifies how the different devices are arranged in a network (bus, ring, star, and mesh topology).
- Transmission mode – The physical layer checks if the transmission is simplex, half-duplex, or full-duplex. It defines how the data flows between the two connected devices.
Data Link Layer
It is the second layer of the OSI model. The data link layer is responsible for providing error-free communication across the physical link connecting the primary and secondary nodes within a network. It provides hop-to-hop delivery. It packages the data from the physical layer into a group called blocks.
The data link layer provides the final framing of the information signal, and it provides synchronization facilities for the orderly flow of data between the nodes.
- Framing − Breaks messages into frames and reassembles frames into messages.
- Error handling − It is used to soles the damaged, lost, and duplicate frames.
- Flow Control − It keeps a fast transmitter from flooding a slow receiver.
- Access Control − In access control, if many hosts have usage of the medium, When a single communication channel is shared by multiple devices, the MAC sub-layer of data link layer helps to determine which device has control over the channel at a given time.
The network layer provides details that enable data to be routed between devices in an environment using multiple networks, sub-networks, or both.
The networking components that operate at the network layer include routers and their software. It determines which network configuration is most appropriate for the function provided by the network and addresses and routes data within a network by establishing, maintaining, and terminating connectors between them.
It provides the upper layers of the hierarchy with independence from the data transmission and switching technologies used to interconnect systems.
It also provides the source and destination network addresses, subnet information, and source and destination node addresses. In this, the network is subdivided into subnet-work that is separated by routers.
We can say that the transport layer controls and ensures the end-to-end integrity of the data message propagated through the network between two devices, providing the reliable, transparent transfer of data between the endpoints.
Responsibilities of Transport Layer
- Segmentation and Reassembly − In this, a message is divided into small pieces. Reassemble the message correctly upon arriving at the destination.
- Reliability − It ensures that packets arrive at their destination. Reassembles out-of-order messages.
- Service Decisions − It is used to check what types of service to provide error-free point-to-point, datagram, etc.
- Mapping − It determines which messages belong to which connections.
- Naming − It must be translated into an internal address and route, send to node XYZ.
- Flow Control − It keeps a fast transmitter from flooding a slow receiver.
- Error Control − To retransmit the damaged segments.
The session layer creates communication channels between devices. It is responsible for opening sessions, ensuring they remain open and functional while the data is being transferred, and close the session when the communication ends.
The session layer can also set checkpoints during a data transfer. If a session is interrupted, then the devices can resume data transfer from the last checkpoint.
The session layer is responsible for network availability for data storage and processes capacity. It provides the logical connection entities at the application layer.
Session Layer Responsibilities −
- Network log-on and log-off procedures
- User authentication
- Determines the type dialog available − simplex, half-duplex, and full-duplex.
- Synchronization of data flow for recovery purposes.
- Creation of dialog units and activity units.
The presentation layer prepares the data for its upper layer or the application layer. It defines how two devices should encode, encrypt, and compress the data.
- The presentation layer receives any data transmitted by the application layer and prepares it for transmission over the session layer.
- It specifies how the end-user applications should format the data.
- This layer provides for the translation between the local representation of data and the representation of data that will be used for transfer between the end-users. The result of encryption, data compression, and virtual terminals are examples of translation services.
The application layer is the topmost layer in the OSI model and acts as the general manager of the network by proving access to the OSI environment. This layer provides distributed information services and controls the sequence of activities within an application and also the sequence of events between the computer application and the user of the application. It communicates directly with the user’s application program.
The application layer uses HTTP, FTP, POP, SMTP, and DNS protocols that allow the software to send and receive information and present meaningful data to users.
- OSI Model in Computer Networking
- Design Issues for the Layers of Computer Networks
- What are ISDN Layers in computer networks?
- What are the Design Issues for the Layers of Computer Networks?
- Computer Networks – An Overview of TCP/IP Model
- The OSI Reference Model
- The Physical Layer of OSI Model
- The Network Layer of OSI Model
- The Transport Layer of OSI Model
- The Session Layer of OSI Model
- The Presentation Layer of OSI Model
- The Application Layer of OSI Model
- The Data Link Layer of OSI Model
- Advantages and Disadvantages of the OSI Model
- Uses of Computer Networks