Types of Motors

PhysicsElectricity

Introduction

Generally, motors are categorized into two distinct types because of the nature of their functionality. These two categories are AC motor and DC motor. The AC motors are known to be flexible in terms of speed and these motors are also known to demand a lot less amount of power. The DC motors are known for their feature of cost efficiency because of their feature of consuming of lot fewer units of power in comparison to the AC motors. The DC motors are also known for their easy installation purposes.

What is classified as a motor?

The motor is known to be a device that is known to provide a series of advancements in terms of technology. The motors have also contributed to major progress in the field of electrical engineering. These motors are known to transform electrical energy into mechanical energy (electrical4u, 2022). This aspect functions on the principle that as the current conductor is placed inside a magnetic field, the engine or the electric motor is known to be in a phase of the electromechanical system.

Various kinds of motors

It has been discussed previously that the motor s typically classified into two distinct sections, that is, AC and DC motors.


Figure 1: AC motor

  • AC motors: These motors are built in such a manner that the base that is installed is larger than the DC motors. This type of motor has multiple benefits. These motors are known to have a controlled pace of acceleration. The speed of operation and torque limit of these motors are adjustable (hyperphysics, 2022). These motors are also known to reduce power line disturbances. These AC motors are further classified into multiple categories.

  • Synchronous motor: This motor has a certain distinct feature associated with its rotator. The rotator of synchronous motor is actually synchronized with the frequency of the current that is supplied to it, and the speed of the rotator remains thoroughly equal under different kinds of loads. Therefore it is suitable to be used in the types of equipment that is moving at significant speed and these motors are also used in positioning devices that require very high precision such as robots, machines and multiple process controls

  • Asynchronous motor: Electromagnetic induction is used by this kind of motor that is derived from the magnetic field of the stator that winds to generate a substantial amount of electric current. These are known to be the most common subtype of AC motors and these are crucial in various industries because of their relative load capacity.

  • DC motors: These motors are the most primitive forms of motors in existence. These motors were mostly utilized because of their cost efficiency as compared to the AC motors.


Figure 2: DC motors

The speed of a DC motor can be controlled by diversifying the voltage that is being supplied to it however most of the common units of a voltage that are supplied to DC motors are 12 and 24V. These motors have certain types of advantages, the DC motors are easy to install and has a multitude of speed control measures. These motors are known to display a speed-torque curve. The DC motors are further divided into two distinct categories, that is brushed and brushless motors.

  • Brushed motors: The brushed motors are the most traditional forms of DC motors that are utilized for very basic applications and these motors function under a much uncomplicated control system. These motors are used for hoisting purposes, lifts and cranes also utilise this motor as these motors are known to have a significantly high torque. These motors are further subdivided into other categories.

    • Series wound- In this motor, the rotor winding is connected with the field winding in a series format. In case the voltage that is being supplied to it is varied the process will aid in controlling the speed.

    • Shunt-wound - In this case, the field winding is connected in a parallel format with the rotor winding this motor is also known to deliver a high amount of torque and it does display any reduction in terms of speed.

    • Compound wound- In these motors, the shunt winding polarity is added to the series fields

    • Permanent magnets-These are typically used instead of electromagnets.

  • Brushless motor: The brushless motors are known to have a simple design; brushless motors require a lesser amount of maintenance but generate high efficiency.

Application of motors

Motors are utilized in almost all the functioning of electrical types of equipment. AC motors are used in multiple industrial fields of work. It ranges from robotics to being used in cranes and lifts to lift heavy objects. According to Asafa et al. (2018), DC motors of shunt wounds are used in conveyer belts, vacuum cleaners, grinders etc.Compound wound DC motors are also used in elevators and centrifugal pumps

Conclusion

In simple terms, it can be concluded that the system that helps in generating a rotational force is classified as a motor. The very core principle regarding the working of the electric motors resides in the aspect that the force is encountered in a direction that is perpendicular to the magnetic field as well as the current, given the current and the magnetic field are allowed to interact with one another.

FAQs

Q1. How many types of AC motors are there?

Ans. AC motors are classified into types synchronous and asynchronous motors. The asynchronous motors are also called induction motors.

Q2. How many types of DC motors are there?

Ans. The DC motors are subdivided into two categories Brushed and Brushless motors. The brushless motors are further declassified in terms of series shunt and compound wound along with the permanent magnet.

Q3. What are the advantages of AC motors?

Ans. It has a controlled acceleration and an adjustable torque limit. These motors have lowered power line disturbances.

Q4. What are the advantages of DC motors?

Ans. These motors are comparatively easier to install. DC motors have a high staring torque.

raja
Updated on 13-Oct-2022 11:19:47

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