The Electric Motor


Direct current sources are important as it provides power to an electric motor. According to Faraday’s Law, the interaction between the electric current and magnetic field helps in generating a force. This generation is done in form of a torque that is applied and used in a motor’s shaft. Some of the most important examples of direct current sources are rectifiers and batteries. Even alternating some current sources like a power grid, inverters and electric generators can also be helpful in powering an electric motor.

Parts of an electric motor

Each electric motor is developed with some parts which play their individual role in working properly. The six most important parts of an electric motor are DC (Direct current), Axle, Rotor, field magnet, crushes, and commutator. DC is known as the power source of a motor (Rehman & Seong, 2018). The power in the motor armature and the field coils are supplied with the help of this part. The rotating interface of a motor within the armature coil is known as the commutator. A stationary circuit is attached with this

Parts of an electric motor

Figure 1: Parts of an electric motor

A device, used for conducting current between every moving part and stationary wires is known as a brush. There is a part that holds the armature coils and this is the armature core. A field magnet is an important part of a motor that helps in producing torque. The virtue of Fleming’s left-hand rule is followed by this magnet field.

Functions of an electric motor

The functions of an electric motor are mainly centred on the production and conversation of energy. The magnetic field of a motor helps in creating and interacting with a motor’s magnetic field. The useful implementation and proper usage of any recently developed technology are integrally connected to this (Cavazzuti et al. 2019). In most of the useful areas of daily activities and to lead our life without any hassles, utilization of motor is seen. Most household appliances, cars, air conditioning machines, car driving processes, and most other areas are associated with electric motors

Working principles of an electric motor

The working principle of an electric motor is dependent on the fact that direct current carries a conductor. The magnetic field around a motor also helps in working and running the motor parts (Principi et al. 2019). The main principle of a motor's working is that at a time when an electric current passes through a particular conductor, it is placed basically and generally on a magnetic field.

Composition of an electric motor

Figure 2: Composition of an electric motor

A force is found to act on that conductor. As a result, mechanical energy is obtained and the conductor begins to move as a motor.

Types of an electric motor

Based on different purposes, different types of motors are developed over time. Faraday’s law regarding induction is very important and relevant in understanding the necessities of each of the motors (Koch, Peter & Fleischer, 2017). As a result of this law, during the interaction time of the magnetic field and alternating current, a force is created. An electric motor is divided into several types. The three main types of electric motor are DC motor, AC motor, and Special motor. The AC motor is again of two types and these are the synchronous motor and the induction motor (Sirimanna et al. 2021). The induction motor can be divided into two other types which are the single-phase induction motor and the three-phase induction motor

Diagram of a motor engine

Figure 3: Diagram of a motor engine

A single-phase motor is associated with two significant established theories which are the Crossfiled theory and Double Revolving field theory. There are some other important types of electric motors as well that including servo motors, hysteresis motors, and stepper motors (Huff & Henderson, 2018). As per the needs of the electrical industry, these types of motors are invented. Each of these motors possesses unique nature of characteristics.

Usage of an electric motor

In recent times, an electric motor is widely used for various purposes. An important area of using an electrical motor is in making improved industrial pieces of equipment. In drills, washing machines, water pumps, and some hard disc drives as well, usage of an electrical motor is found (Koch, Peter & Fleischer, 2017). The high efficiency of an electric motor plays an important role in increasing the demand for electric motors. In producing heat and sounds as well, electric motors are currently used.


Another important name for an induction motor is a synchronous motor that runs at a speed, less than the motor’s synchronous speed. In this type of motor, the rotating torque and the speed of the motor are found to be governed by the variation of slip. As a beneficial consequence of the invention of the electric motor, the engineering aspect has been developed very much from before


Q1. Which device is used to convert a type of mechanical work into electrical energy?

An important usage of an electric motor is found in a generator. A generator is that device used to convert mechanical work into useable electrical energy

Q2. What is the working process of an electric motor?

Converting electrical energy into useful mechanical energy is the main working process of an electric motor. In this process, force is generated

Q3. What is the process of spinning a motor?

At a certain time, an electric current is presented into a magnetic field. In his time, a range of a force is created and as a result

Q4. What are the two types of an electric motor?

Alternating and Direct Current are the two types of electric motors. Alternating current is utilized by AC motors for powering wound coils. DC motors on the other hand use direct current for powering electrical commutation

Updated on: 18-Aug-2023


Kickstart Your Career

Get certified by completing the course

Get Started