# Physics - Timeline

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The following table illustrates the major events (along with probably time period) that occurred in physics −

Event | Time Period |
---|---|

Babylonians collected information of planets and stars | 2000 BC to 1600 BC |

Ancient Indians explained the evolution of universe and also explained about sun, moon, earth, and other planets | 1500 BC to 1000 BC |

Greek philosopher Anaxagoras explained the physical universe | During 5^{th} Century BC |

Two Greek philosophers namely Leucippus and Democritus established the school of Atomism | During 5^{th} Century BC |

Aristotle, the Greek philosopher, described a geocentric universe | During 4^{th} Century BC |

The Greek philosopher Heraclides explained the motions of planets and stars | During 4^{th} Century BC |

Eratosthenes, the Greek mathematical geographer proposed the round shape of the Earth | During 3^{rd} Century BC |

Hipparchus was the first who measured the precession of the equinoxes | During 2^{nd} Century BC |

Based on Aristotelian ideas, the Roman-Egyptian mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy described a geocentric model | During 2^{nd} Century AD |

The Indian astronomer and mathematician Aryabhata described the earth’s elliptical orbit around the sun and its axis (heliocentric view) | During 5^{th} Century AD |

Brahmagupta, the Indian mathematician and astronomer noticed the gravity of earth | During 7^{th} Century AD |

Abu al-Rayhan al-Biruni, the Persian astronomer described the Earth's gravitation. | During 11^{th} Century AD |

Nicolaus Copernicus, the Polish astronomer and polymath explained the heliocentric principal scientifically | During 16^{th} Century Ad |

Johannes Kepler, the German mathematician and astronomer propounded Laws of Planetary Motion | During 17^{th} Century AD |

Galileo Galilei, the Italian mathematician and physicist invented an astronomical telescope | During 17^{th} Century AD |

Sir Isaac Newton, the English mathematician, astronomer, and physicist propounded Laws of Motions and Universal Law of Gravitation | During 17^{th} Century AD |

Emanuel Swedenborg first suggested parts of the nebular hypothesis | 1734 AD |

Immanuel Kant publishing “Universal Natural History and Theory of the Heavens,” and explained nebular hypothesis |
1755 AD |

Max Planck, the German physicist described the law of black body radiation and led the foundation of quantum physics | During 20^{th} Century AD |

Albert Einstein, the German physicist propounded the theory relativity | During the 20^{th} Century AD |

Max Planck introduced formula for Black Body radiation | 1900 AD |

Kamerlingh Onnes experimented and noticed superconductivity | 1911 AD |

Wolfgang Pauli, the Austrian theoretical physicist proposed an important quantum mechanical principle namely the ‘Pauli exclusion principle’ | 1925 AD |

Georges Lemaître proposed Big Bang theory | 1927 AD |

Edwin Hubble explained the expanding nature of universe (known as Hubble’s Law) | 1929 AD |

Otto Hahn discovered nuclear fission discovered | 1938 AD |

Black Hole Entropy | 1972 AD |

Richard Feynman proposes quantum computing | 1980 AD |

Theory of cosmic inflation | 1981 AD |

Top quark discovered | 1995 AD |

Gravitational waves detected | 2015 AD |

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