Physics - Nanotechnology


  • Nanotechnology is the science of management and manipulation of atoms and molecules to design a new technology.

  • Nanotechnology is the supramolecular technology, which means, it is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular or supramolecular scale.

  • Interestingly, one nanometer (nm) is equal to one billionth, or 10−9, of a meter.

  • The concept and idea of nanotechnology original discussed first time in 1959 by Richard Feynman, the renowned physicist.

  • Richard Feynman in his talk “There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom,” described the feasibility of synthesis via direct manipulation of atoms.

  • However, in 1974, the term "Nano-technology" was first used by Norio Taniguchi.

Major fields of Research

  • Following are the major fields in which nanotechnology is being researched −

    • Advance computing − Developing super computer

    • Electronics − developing conductors and semi-conductors

    • Medicines − Developing technology to treat cancer (especially breast cancer)

    • Textile Engineering − Nanofabrication, etc.

Application of Nanotechnology

  • Following are the major application of nanotechnology −

    • Manufacturing of lifesaving medical robots

    • Making available the networked computers for everyone in the world

    • Plant networked cameras to watch everyone’s movement (very helpful for the administrative service and maintaining the law and order.

    • Manufacturing untraceable weapons of mass destruction.

    • Swift inventions of many wonderful products useful in everyday life.

Application of Nanotechnology
  • Likewise, the molecular technology has range of potentials that benefit to humankind; however, at the same time, it also brings severe dangers. Untraceable weapon of mass destruction is an ideal example of its deadliness.

Major Branches of Nanotechnology

  • Following are the major branches of nanotechnology −

    • Nanoelectronics

    • Nanomechanics

    • Nanophotonics

    • Nanoionics

Contributory Disciplines of Nanotechnology

  • Following are the major disciplines that integrated into the development of science of nanotechnology −

    • Surface science

    • Organic chemistry

    • Molecular biology

    • Semiconductor physics

    • Microfabrication

    • Molecular engineering

Implication of Nanotechnology

  • Every coin has two faces, similarly, the application of nanotechnology at industrial scale i.e. manufacturing nanomaterials might have negative implications on human health as well as on the environment.

  • The workers who especially work in such industry where non materials are used, are more vulnerable, as they inhale airborne nanoparticles and nanofibers. These Nano materials may lead to a number of pulmonary diseases, including fibrosis, etc.