Nanotechnology is the science of management and manipulation of atoms and molecules to design a new technology.
Nanotechnology is the supramolecular technology, which means, it is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular or supramolecular scale.
Interestingly, one nanometer (nm) is equal to one billionth, or 10−9, of a meter.
The concept and idea of nanotechnology original discussed first time in 1959 by Richard Feynman, the renowned physicist.
Richard Feynman in his talk “There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom,” described the feasibility of synthesis via direct manipulation of atoms.
However, in 1974, the term "Nano-technology" was first used by Norio Taniguchi.
Following are the major fields in which nanotechnology is being researched −
Advance computing − Developing super computer
Electronics − developing conductors and semi-conductors
Medicines − Developing technology to treat cancer (especially breast cancer)
Textile Engineering − Nanofabrication, etc.
Following are the major application of nanotechnology −
Manufacturing of lifesaving medical robots
Making available the networked computers for everyone in the world
Plant networked cameras to watch everyone’s movement (very helpful for the administrative service and maintaining the law and order.
Manufacturing untraceable weapons of mass destruction.
Swift inventions of many wonderful products useful in everyday life.
Likewise, the molecular technology has range of potentials that benefit to humankind; however, at the same time, it also brings severe dangers. Untraceable weapon of mass destruction is an ideal example of its deadliness.
Following are the major branches of nanotechnology −
Following are the major disciplines that integrated into the development of science of nanotechnology −
Every coin has two faces, similarly, the application of nanotechnology at industrial scale i.e. manufacturing nanomaterials might have negative implications on human health as well as on the environment.
The workers who especially work in such industry where non materials are used, are more vulnerable, as they inhale airborne nanoparticles and nanofibers. These Nano materials may lead to a number of pulmonary diseases, including fibrosis, etc.