Nobel Prize In Physics


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Introduction

  • The Nobel Prize in Physics is the most prestigious award given yearly by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

  • The Noble prize is given to those physicists who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind (in physics).

  • Wilhelm Röntgen, a German/Dutch physicist, was the first person who had received the first Nobel Prize in 1901.

  • Wilhelm Röntgen had received the Nobel Prize for discovery of the remarkable x-rays).

  • In the field of physics (by the time), only two women have won the Nobel Prize, namely Marie Curie (in 1903) and Maria Goeppert Mayer (in 1963).

  • The following table illustrates some of the significant physicists who have received the Nobel Prize along with their remarkable works −

Name Year: Country Work
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen 1901: Germany Discovery of the remarkable rays
Hendrik Lorentz 1902: Netherlands Worked on the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena
Pieter Zeeman
Antoine Henri Becquerel 1903: France Spontaneous radioactivity
Pierre Curie Radiation phenomena
Maria Skłodowska-Curie 1903: Poland/France
Philipp Eduard Anton von Lenard 1905: Austria-Hungary Worked on cathode rays
Guglielmo Marconi 1909: Italy Development of wireless telegraphy
Karl Ferdinand Braun 1909: Germany
Max Planck 1918: Germany Discovered energy quanta
Johannes Stark 1919: Germany Discovered Doppler effect in canal rays
Albert Einstein 1921: Germany-Switzerland For the discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect
Niels Bohr 1922: Denmark Investigated the structure of atoms
Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman 1930: India Worked on scattering of light
Werner Heisenberg 1932: Germany Created quantum mechanics
Erwin Schrödinger 1933: Austria Discovered productive forms of atomic theory
Paul Dirac 1933: United Kingdom
James Chadwick 1935: UK Discovered Neutron
Victor Francis Hess 1936: Austria Discovered cosmic radiation
Willis Eugene Lamb 1955: US Discovered the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum
Emilio Gino Segrè 1959: Italy Discovered the antiproton
Owen Chamberlain 1959: US
Lev Davidovich Landau 1962: Soviet Union Theories for condensed matter
Maria Goeppert-Mayer 1963: US Discovered nuclear shell structure
J. Hans D. Jensen 1963: Germany
Hans Albrecht Bethe 1967: US Worked on the theory of nuclear reactions
Murray Gell-Mann 1969: US Classification of elementary particles and their interaction
Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén 1970: Sweden Worked on plasma physics
Louis Néel 1970: France Worked solid state physics (antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism)
Dennis Gabor 1971: Hungary-UK Developed the holographic method
John Bardeen 1972: US Developed the theory of superconductivity
Leon Neil Cooper
John Robert Schrieffer
Arno Allan Penzias 1978: US Discovered cosmic microwave background radiation
Robert Woodrow Wilson
Nicolaas Bloembergen 1981: Netherlands-US Developed laser spectroscopy
Arthur Leonard Schawlow 1981: US
Ernst Ruska 1986: Germany Designed the first electron microscope
Johannes Georg Bednorz 1987: Germany Discovered the superconductivity in ceramic materials
Karl Alexander Müller 1987: Switzerland
Robert B. Laughlin 1998: US Discovered a new form of quantum fluid
Horst Ludwig Störmer 1998: Germany
Daniel Chee Tsui 1998: China-US
Jack St. Clair Kilby 2000: US Developed integrated circuit
Riccardo Giacconi 2002: Italy-US Discovered cosmic X-ray sources
Roy J. Glauber 2005: US Worked on the quantum theory of optical coherence
Willard S. Boyle 2009: Canada-US Invented an imaging semiconductor circuit – the CCD sensor
George E. Smith 2009: US
Takaaki Kajita 2015: Japan Discovered neutrino oscillations, which illustrations that the neutrinos have mass
Arthur B. McDonald 2015: Canada


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