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Difference between Slip Ring & Squirrel Cage Induction Motor
There are two types of 3-phase induction motors viz. squirrel-cage induction motor and slip-ring or wound-rotor induction motor.
- Squirrel cage induction motors are widely used in industrial applications because they are very cheap, robust, efficient and reliable.
- On the other hand, slip-ring or wound-rotor induction motors are rarely used in industries since these motors have several disadvantages such as high copper loss and frequent maintenance.
Following are the key differences between slip ring and squirrel cage induction motors −
- The construction of a slip-ring induction motor is complicated because it consists of slip-rings and brushes while the squirrel cage induction motor has simple construction.
- The slip ring induction motors have high starting torque with low starting current whereas squirrel cage motors have low starting torque and high starting current.
- Slip-ring motor has smooth acceleration under heavy loads as compare to the squirrel cage motor.
- There is no abnormal heating during starting of the slip ring motor whereas adequate heat is generated in squirrel cage motor due to high starting current.
- The speed control of slip-ring motor is very easy as compared to squirrel cage motor.
- For starting the slip ring induction motor rotor resistance starter is required whereas the squirrel cage motor may not require any starter.
- Slip ring motors have good running characteristics as compared to squirrel cage motors.
- For the slip ring induction motors, the initial and maintenance costs are higher than those of squirrel cage induction motors.
- Slip ring induction motors have lower efficiency than the squirrel cage induction motors.
- The power factor of slip ring induction motors is low as compared to squirrel cage motors.
- The operation of slip ring induction motor is more sensitive to the fluctuations in supply voltage as compared to the squirrel cage motor.
- The copper loss is greater in a slip ring induction motor as compared to squirrel cage motor.
- Slip ring induction motors are mainly used in applications where high starting torque is required such as cranes, hoists, conveyors, etc. while the squirrel cage induction motors are used in general application like lath machine, drill machine, pumps and fans, etc.
Summary of Differences between Squirrel Cage & Slip Ring Induction Motors
|Parameter of Comparison||Squirrel-Cage Induction Motor||Slip-Ring Induction Motor|
|Rotor Type||Squirrel cage type rotor with permanently short circuited rotor bars.||Wound type rotor with 3-phase windings similar to stator winding.|
|External Rotor Resistance||It is not possible to add external resistance because the rotor bars are permanently shorted with the help of end rings.||External resistance is to be added during starting.|
|Maintenance||Less maintenance is required.||Frequent maintenance is required.|
|Speed Control||Not possible||Possible|
|Application||In lath machine, fans, pumps, blowers, etc.||In cranes, hoists, elevators, conveyors and loads which require high starting torque, etc.|
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