C library function - bsearch()

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Description

The C library function void *bsearch(const void *key, const void *base, size_t nitems, size_t size, int (*compar)(const void *, const void *)) function searches an array of nitems objects, the initial member of which is pointed to by base, for a member that matches the object pointed to by key. The size of each member of the array is specified by size.

The contents of the array should be in ascending sorted order according to the comparison function referenced by compar.

Declaration

Following is the declaration for bsearch() function.

void *bsearch(const void *key, const void *base, size_t nitems, size_t size, int (*compar)(const void *, const void *))

Parameters

  • key -- This is the pointer to the object that serves as key for the search, type-casted as a void*.

  • base -- This is the pointer to the first object of the array where the search is performed, type-casted as a void*.

  • nitems -- This is the number of elements in the array pointed by base.

  • size -- This is the size in bytes of each element in the array.

  • compar -- This is the function that compares two elements.

Return Value

This function returns a pointer to an entry in the array that matches the search key. If key is not found, a NULL pointer is returned.

Example

The following example shows the usage of bsearch() function.

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>


int cmpfunc(const void * a, const void * b)
{
   return ( *(int*)a - *(int*)b );
}

int values[] = { 5, 20, 29, 32, 63 };

int main ()
{
   int *item;
   int key = 32;

   /* using bsearch() to find value 32 in the array */
   item = (int*) bsearch (&key, values, 5, sizeof (int), cmpfunc);
   if( item != NULL ) 
   {
      printf("Found item = %d\n", *item);
   }
   else 
   {
      printf("Item = %d could not be found\n", *item);
   }
   
   return(0);
}

Let us compile and run the above program, this will produce the following result:

Found item = 32


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