What Causes Blindness

Blind people cannot perceive light. Partial blindness affects peripheral vision. One symptom could be trouble seeing details or distinguishing between objects. Blind people can't see. "Legal blindness" means significantly damaged eyesight.

Legally blind people see 20% less than sighted people. See a doctor if you lose eyesight suddenly. Take someone to the closest hospital's emergency department. Don't wait for better vision. Depending on the reason, immediate therapy may help you see again. Surgery and medicines can treat.

Signs of Blindness

Complete blindness prevents you from perceiving anything. The following are some signs of partial blindness −

  • Impaired visibility

  • A lack of shape perception

  • Having no light at all

  • Vision impairment at night

  • Lack of perspective

Signs that an Infant may be going Blind

By the time they are between 6 and 8 weeks old, your infant should be able to concentrate on an item and follow the movement of that object. By four months, their eyes should be level and not be turned in or out. Your unborn child's visual system begins to take form throughout the first few months of pregnancy. It achieves full development at the age of two years or thereabouts.

Symptoms of vision impairment in infants and toddlers may include −

  • Rubbing your eyes all the time

  • A severe intolerance of light

  • Inability to focus

  • Persistent red eyes

  • Constant watering of the eyes

  • A non-black, but rather white, pupil

  • Problems with visual tracking or the inability to keep one's gaze fixed in one place

  • Deviations in eye position or alignment after the age of six months

When does Vision Loss Occur?

Causes of blindness include the following diseases and conditions of the eyes −

  • Glaucoma may damage the optic nerve, which sends visual signals to the brain.

  • Macular degeneration causes loss of vision in the central retina. Older people are more likely to be affected.

    Vision becomes hazy due to cataracts. They occur more frequently in older people. A lazy eye makes it hard to focus on objects close up. Vision loss is a possible outcome. Inflammation of the optic nerve, also known as optic neuritis, can result in either short- or long-term vision loss. Damage to the retina is known as retinitis pigments. In extremely unusual instances, it can cause blindness.

  • Cancers of the retina or optic nerve are another possible cause of blindness.

Diabetes and stroke both carry a risk of resulting in blindness. The following are also frequent reasons for blindness −

  • Abnormalities at conception

  • Acute ocular trauma

  • Postoperative eye problems

Infant Blindness: Causes

The following are some of the causes of infant blindness or vision impairment −

  • Pink eye and other infections

  • Tear duct obstruction

  • Strabismus or crossed eyes

  • Cataracts

  • Ptosis or droopy eyelid

  • Amblyopia or a lazy eye

  • Inherited forms of glaucoma

  • Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) occurs in preterm infants because their retinal blood vessels haven't had enough time to develop normally.

  • Visual inattention or a delay in your child's visual system development

Who are the People who could go Blind?

People belonging to the following groups are at increased risk of going blind −

  • Patients suffering from ocular conditions like macular degeneration and glaucoma

  • Diabetic individuals

  • Individuals experiencing a stroke

  • Patients having eye surgery

  • Those who deal with dangerous tools or substances on the job

  • Preterm infants

How does One Identify Blindness?

Your eyes may be examined by an optometrist, who will then be able to determine the cause of your vision loss or impairment. Your eye doctor will do a series of tests to evaluate the following −

  • How to clear your vision is

  • How well your eye muscles are functioning

  • How quickly do your pupils react to light

A slit lamp examination will evaluate your eyes' general health. It comprises a microscope with a low power setting and a light with high intensity.

Infant Blindness Diagnosis

Your baby will undergo an eye exam with a pediatrician soon after birth. Check your child's eyesight, focus, and alignment with an ophthalmologist or pediatrician once again at six months of age. Your baby's doctor will test their eyes for color and light tracking.

By 6-8 weeks, your infant can focus on moving objects. Bright light and colorful items captivate babies in their first few months. If your kid has crossed eyes or vision problems, have an eye test.

Can blindness be Cured?

Some people with impaired vision may benefit from one or more of the following treatments −

  • Eyeglasses

  • Lenses for the eyes

  • Surgery

  • Medication

Your doctor will help you adjust to uncorrectable partial blindness. You may zoom, expand, or even listen to the time and books.

What is the Prognosis for the Future?

The long-term prognosis for recovering eyesight and decreasing the rate of visual loss is improved by the preventive and sought-out early treatment. Cataract surgery is effective. They may not kill. Early diagnosis and treatment may stop or postpone glaucoma and macular degeneration.

How can we Stop People from going Blind?

Regular eye examinations are important for maintaining excellent eye health and preventing vision loss. If eye diseases like glaucoma are diagnosed and treated in time, they may avoid irreversible vision loss. Let's imagine they start seeing signs of vision loss in between doctor visits. In such scenario, individuals should make an urgent appointment with their eye doctor.

Updated on: 10-May-2023


Kickstart Your Career

Get certified by completing the course

Get Started