Suggest A Few Ways to Prevent the Spread of Communicable Diseases


Disease can be of two types one that spreads from one organism to another and one that does not. The infectious disease that can spread from one organism to other is known as communicable disease. Pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, and fungi cause these diseases. They spread either through direct contact or with bodily fluids, insect bites, contaminated surfaces, water, and foods, or through the air.


Communicable disease is a type of disease that spreads easily from one person or animal to another either through direct contact with the sick person, or through exchange of bodily fluids, insect bites, contaminated surfaces, water, and foods, or through the air. It is also known as infectious or transmissible disease.


The most common communicable diseases are HIV, hepatitis A, B, and C, measles, Tuberculosis influenza, coronaviruses, Ringworm, Lyme disease, Athletes foot, and many other blood-borne diseases.


A symptom is a set of physical or mental conditions which indicates a person has been affected by a disease. Once a pathogen enters the body, it starts replicating due to which the person may begin to experience certain symptoms.

These symptoms can be of varying potential depending on a person's overall health and his immune function. Some people may not experience any symptoms but can still transmit the pathogen. Some communicable diseases may be mild and symptoms pass after a few days.

However, there are many communicable diseases which are very serious and can be life threatening. Some symptoms are direct result of the pathogen damaging the body cells, others are due to the body's immune response to the disease.


There are basically four main types of pathogens that cause communicable disease. These are −

  • Viruses.

  • Bacteria.

  • Fungi.

  • Protozoa.


Viruses are submicroscopic pathogens that contain nucleic acid molecule in a protein coat as genetic material. They replicate only inside the living cells of an organism. As they lack the complex structure of a cell, they use the hosts cell’s machinery to replicate themselves.


Bacteria are microscopic, single-celled free-living organisms. They lack organelles and a true nucleus. They exist in almost every environment on earth, including inside the human body. Although many bacteria are harmless, and some help the body to function. However, some bacteria can also cause infections that damage the body.


Fungi are eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts, molds, and mushrooms. Fungal infections can occur anywhere in the body. However, they commonly affect the skin and mucus membranes.


Protozoa are single-celled microscopic animals. They can either be free living or parasitic, meaning they live on or inside another organism and use the organism’s nutrients for their own survival. Parasitic protozoa can cause various types of diseases.


Anyone who comes in contact of any sort of pathogen may develop a disease known as communicable disease. A pathogen is a disease-causing organism. This may happen through either of the following ways −

  • Direct Contact: Any person who comes in direct contact with a pathogen or a person carrying the pathogen will contract the disease. In this case, the person who most likely get affected are the immediate family members and the one who is taking care of the patients.

  • Contact with Bodily Fluids Containing Pathogens: Body fluids, such as saliva, semen, and vaginal fluid, can contain viruses that can be passed on to other people. Diseases like HIV spread like this.

  • Inhaling Pathogen-Containing Droplets: If an infected person coughs or sneezes, the pathogen from the droplets spread and can be inhaled by a person standing close to them.

  • Insect Bite: Receiving a bite from an animal or insect carrying the pathogen.

  • Consuming Contaminated Water or Foods: If one drinks from the same bottle or shares the food from the same place, or through food that is contaminated with pathogen by other ways, pathogens may transfer from the infected to healthy person.

  • Pregnancy: Germs can also transfer from the mother to her unborn child through blood or other bodily fluids.

Precautions to Prevent the Spread of Communicable Diseases

A few precautions to prevent the spread of diseases are given below −

Wash Your Hands Often

We should wash our hands as often as possible mostly before and after food preparation, before and after eating and after using the toilet.


Vaccinations help the body to be ready and remember the germs before they can attack. They reduce the chances of contracting many diseases, hence one should follow the rules and get vaccinated on time.

Use Antibiotics Sensibly

We should take the antibiotics as prescribed and when prescribed by the doctor. We should remember the dosage of the antibiotics and complete the course even if we start to feel better.

Stay at Home If You Have Signs and Symptoms of an Infection

We should stay at home if we are not feeling well or have some symptoms like slight fever, nausea or vomiting. There is no need to go to school or work in such situations as things may escalate fast.

Be Smart About Food Preparation

We should keep our kitchen clean. All the lids of the food containers should be properly closed, and the food should not be left unattended for a long period of time. If there is extra food one can keep it in the refrigerator.

Disinfect The 'Hot Zones' in Your Residence

Two places in our homes that is the bathroom and the kitchen are the hot zones for bacteria and viruses, hence, they should be kept clean, dry and disinfected.

Don't Share Personal Items

Maintenance of personal hygiene is important. One should keep these items clean and dry avoid sharing them with others.

Travel Wisely

One should not fly when they are ill as airplane is a small area where many people are confined for more than two hours leading to high chance of spreading the disease. Depending on where you are traveling to, talk to the doctor and take special immunizations or emergency medications which you may need.


Communicable diseases are disease that can spread easily from one person to another, hence care must be taken if one is ill or showing any signs and symptoms of illness. It is said that prevention is better than cure, therefore, one should take preventive measures that are stated above.

On contracting any disease, one should see the doctor immediately and take the prescribed medicines. One should always keep the record of the allergens and if they are allergic to any medication.


Q1. What is communicable disease?

Ans. Communicable disease are infectious disease that can spread easily from one individual to another.

Q2. State some cause of communicable disease?

Ans. Some causes of communicable diseases include bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, and other microorganisms that can be transmitted through direct or indirect contact with infected individuals or contaminated objects.

Poor hygiene practices, such as not washing hands or not covering the mouth when coughing or sneezing, can also contribute to the spread of communicable diseases. Additionally, factors such as crowded living conditions, inadequate sanitation, and limited access to healthcare can increase the risk of transmission and severity of communicable diseases.

Updated on: 27-Mar-2023


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