Studying the Behaviour of Permanent Magnets


The magnet is generally referred to as such materials that have their component atoms in a particular order that helps the materials to generate a magnetic field around the material. These kinds of materials that exhibit properties of magnetism is usually known as the materials that are responsible for attracting iron or the objects that contain iron. Focusing on such conceptualisation of physics, the current tutorial will discuss the permanent magnets along with their types and properties of it.

What is a Permanent Magnet?

A permanent magnet contains such materials with n intrinsic structure that helps to create a magnetic field. The magnetic field is created by the magnetic electrical field generated from the changed orbit of the electrons that are extremely charged that have been able to generate the capability of attracting an object towards its centre. This generation of the magnetic field can be retained by a particular magnet for a long period of time (de Julián Fernández et al. 2021). Additionally, if the domains can be arranged in a particular direction, the magnets will be able to generate a collective magnetic field without being influenced externally.

Magnetic Behaviour with Magnetism

In accordance with the memorials identified by physics, the materials that are Ferromagnetic are also able to exhibit magnetism. The magnetic substance of a Ferromagnetic is generally considered to influence the magnetic characteristics within the direction of the domains within meters. It has been observed that if the randomness present in the environment can be reduced, a collective magnetic field will be generated .

In order to generate such collective magnetic fields, any external force is generally avoided the directions of the domain will be pointed towards one direction which increases the magnetism of the magnate to remain a long period of time.

How the Permanent Magnet Works?

It has been observed that in a common material or component the atoms remain in a randomised order. In such order, the protons and electrons that carry charges like positive and negative rotate in a random manner that has no ability to create a strong pulling capacity in the object. This is the reason for which the components are found in a neutral position as these are unable to generate any magnetic field.

At the time these components come in relation to an electric field or any other magnetic field, the randomised path of the atoms is rearranged in such a manner that the direction is focused on a single side. For this reason, the magnetic components have two different sides, north and south as the atoms that are charged negatively or positively are arranged between the directional sides of the magnetic component.

Types of Permanent Magnets

Magnetic Metallic Elements

Most of these elements are considered paramagnetic as the materials of these components are generally contained in unpaired electron spins. Examples of such materials include iron, cobalt, and copper materials.

Magnets Made of Rare-Earth Elements

These kinds of elements are generally packed with magnetic compounds that are high in strength. The applications of such elements are seen in the generation of a magnetic field that is intense. In accordance with the information, the most prevalent rare-earth elements are samarium-cobalt magnets and NIB.

SCMs and SMMs

SCMs stand for Single-chain magnets that are considered a type of molecular polymeric material. These materials are responsible for the exhibition of delayed magnetization relaxation.

The behaviour that has been provided by such kinds of elements is single polymeric chain magnetic hysteretic (de Julián Fernández et al. 2021). SMMs stand for Single-Molecule Magnets which can be referred to as a particular system that has many interacting spins that define low-lying energy levels.

Properties of Magnetism

Directive property

A magnet can be helpful for the determination of the directions of the north and south poles. In a bar magnet, if hung in the air the north pole of the magnet will be in the direction of the south pole of the earth and the south pole of the magnet will be in the direction of the north pole of the earth .

The Earth’s Magnetism

The earth also acts as a massive bar magnate, the intensity of which depends on the position of the object. Being represented by the word T, the strength of earth's magnetism is calculated as 10-5 T.


The tutorial has shed light on the definition of the permanent magnets that have been explained along with including the types and properties as well. It has been stated in the tutorial that when a magnetic field is inflicted on the substances that are ferromagnetic, the domains become able for producing magnetism. The types of permanent magnets include the names like Magnetic Metallic Elements, SCMs and SMMs and others. Moreover, the properties responsible for generating the magnetism in a permanent magnet include the attributes like Property of Directive and The Magnetism of the Earth.


Q.1. What makes a substance magnetic?

Ans. The motion of electric charges is considered the main reason for changing a normal substance to a magnetic one. The magnetic properties identified in the substance are for the change in the orbits of electrons of an atom.

Q.2. Why does the Earth behave like a magnet?

Ans. As the earth rotates on its own axis, this particular movement of the earth causes electric currents on the outer layer of the earth that helps to generate electric currents to form a magnetic field around it.

Q.3. What is an example of a permanent magnet?

Ans. The magnet that is capable to retain the magnetic properties in long term is generally recognised as a permanent magnet for instance cobalt, nickel, iron and some rare earth alloys.

Q.4. What are some common applications of a permanent magnet?

Ans. The systems that require very high forces are the need the permanent magnets to hold them in a place. Some other applications of permanent magnet are witnessed in compass making, vending machines, hard disk drives and many more.