Relationship Between Parenting and Kinship

Parenting and kinship are essential since family structures and dynamics can substantially impact child-rearing practices and development. For example, grandparents and other relatives may play an essential role in raising and caring for children in cultures where extended family networks are standard. In contrast, in cultures where nuclear families are the norm, parents may rely more on external resources such as schools and childcare services.

Relationship Between Parenting and Kinship

Parenting and kinship are two concepts that are strongly intertwined. The relationship between a parent and a child is referred to as parenting. Kinship is a more significant notion encompassing family relationships such as siblings, aunts, uncles, cousins, grandparents, and other extended family members. Parenting is providing a child with physical, emotional, and economic support. It also entails educating, punishing, and guiding. Parents are responsible for helping their children understand and accept their place in the family and the world. Although child-rearing styles differ, common approaches include authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting.

Kinship extends beyond the parent-child bond. It is acknowledging all family members' relationships, including extended family. It is the awareness that people share a common history, values, and experiences. Kinship is essential to understanding one's identity and belonging to a family. It also contributes to a sense of belonging, security, and stability. Kinship can also impact child-rearing practices by transmitting cultural norms and beliefs.

Parents may be more likely to adopt authoritarian child-rearing styles in cultures where obedience and respect for authority are highly valued. In contrast, parents may be more likely to adopt permissive or authoritative parenting styles in cultures emphasizing independence and individualism.

Parenting Styles

There are four distinct parenting styles: democratic, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved. Each of these child-rearing styles can have a different impact on the growth and well-being of a child.

  • Democratic Parenting − This style is distinguished by high degrees of warmth and responsiveness and substantial levels of control and behavioral demands. Authoritarian parents establish clear limits and regulations, but they also explain why they do so and are open to listening to their child's point of view. Children raised by forceful parents have great self-esteem, good social skills, and excel intellectually. For example, an authoritative parent may rule that their child must do homework before watching TV. However, they may also explain why they must prioritize their schoolwork.

  • Authoritarian Parenting − Authoritarian parenting is distinguished by a lack of warmth and responsiveness and high control and behavioral demands. Authoritarian parents are demanding and stern and frequently employ punishment to enforce their demands. Children with authoritarian parents may have low self-esteem, poor social skills, and difficulties making independent decisions. An authoritarian parent, for example, would rule that their child must eat their food before leaving the table and penalize the child if they do not comply.

  • Permissive Parenting − Permissive parenting is characterized by high warmth and responsiveness but low control and behavioral demands. Permissive parents may hesitate to set clear rules and boundaries, and they frequently prioritize their child's happiness and comfort over their child's long-term growth. Children with lenient parents may struggle with impulse control and adhering to rules and boundaries. A permissive parent, for example, would let their child stay up as late as they want, eat whatever they want, and watch TV shows without establishing clear boundaries or rules.

  • Uninvolved Parenting − This parenting style is distinguished by a lack of warmth and attentiveness, as well as a lack of control and behavioral demands. Uninvolved parents may be emotionally distant or absent, and their wants or interests may precede their child's well-being. Children of uninvolved parents may suffer from emotional regulation, low academic achievement, and behavioral issues. For example, an uninvolved parent may be absent for extended periods owing to work or other responsibilities and fail to provide emotional support or guidance to their child.

How does Kinship Influence Parenting?

Kinship, or the social relationships and obligations based on familial ties, can have a range of effects on child-rearing. Close or distant familial ties and the cultural norms and values connected with them can influence parental attitudes and behaviors. Here are some examples of how kinship might influence parenting −

  • Cultural Expectations − Cultural expectations can influence child-rearing attitudes and practices, such as how much parents involve extended family members in child-rearing or how much independence they give their children. Extended family members, for example, play an essential part in raising children and providing support to parents in some cultures, whereas independence and self-reliance are prized more in others.

  • Role Models − Parents frequently model their parenting behaviors after those they observed as children, particularly within their own family. As a result, specific child-rearing techniques may be passed down through generations. If a parent grew up in a household where physical discipline was widespread, they might be more likely to use it with their children.

  • Social Support − Family members can offer parents emotional and practical assistance, which can influence child-rearing attitudes and behaviors. Parents with strong social support networks may be more secure in their parenting abilities and have more resources to call on when faced with difficulties.

  • Gender Roles Expectations − Distinct cultures may have different parenting expectations for mothers and fathers. Mothers, for example, may be expected to be primary carers, but males may be expected to be the breadwinner. Gender expectations can influence child-rearing behaviors and attitudes.


Parental styles can substantially impact a child's development, with authoritative parenting connected with beneficial outcomes and authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved child-rearing styles related to poor outcomes. Kinship can also impact parental attitudes and behaviors through cultural standards, role modeling, social support, family structure, and gender role expectations. Finally, parenting is a complex and dynamic process influenced by various individual and cultural circumstances.

Updated on: 04-May-2023


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