Dyslexia is a reading disorder in which a person mostly through his childhood finds it difficult to read and write. He may suffer difficulty in speaking fast, identifying numbers and letters, spelling words, or writing words. He may not be able to process the letters or words he is hearing. These difficulties are often noticed first at school.

Many times, the students are held responsible for not giving attention to classes, however, this might not be the problem. It has been many times found that the dyslexic child tries to concentrate more than a normal child, he understands well but due to this condition, he is unable to process it properly.

The genesis of dyslexia may be due to a variety of reasons. Genetic reasons are the most common cause of dyslexia. It is divided into two types depending on the reasons for dyslexia development dyslexia and acquired dyslexia. In acquired dyslexia, a person suffers some neurotic trauma or head injury. They may exhibit the same symptoms as that with developmental dyslexia.

The person suffering from dyslexia mainly suffers from a lonely childhood, as he is always being boycotted from playgroups, families not being supportive enough, and teachers think that the student is responsible for failure. But the fact is no one can analyze the reason for his condition. Love and extra attention are needed for these students.

Dyslexia: Causes

No specific reason is held responsible for dyslexia. It can be due to any of the factors, or the combination of factors listed below. The following are the important causes of developing dyslexia −

  • Genetics. Dyslexia is linked to the genes of the person. If a person has a positive history of dyslexia in the family, he is more likely to be diagnosed with it.

  • Neurological reasons. Many studies have shown that children suffering from dyslexia have both structural and functional problems in the brain. The electrical activity responsible for a person to read and write is less active in this child. The reason for this is not known.

  • Language. Some of the languages are difficult to grasp. The sound the words produces is sometimes not exactly how they are written. This creates confusion in a person's mind and may become the cause of dyslexia.

Dyslexia: Symptoms

Dyslexia is identified in childhood, and this makes it very important to read the first symptoms of it. A child if not handled properly may behave negatively and not be able to read and write, their career of his might be in jeopardy. Some of the patients acquired dyslexia due to head injuries and trauma or stress. They start showing symptoms after the incident.

The patient with dyslexia mainly presents with the following symptoms that include −

  • Difficulty reading letters and words.

  • Difficulty in writing.

  • Not being able to distinguish between letters for ex- ‘b’ and ‘’d’.

  • Having difficulty understanding numbers.

  • Spending a lot of time trying to learn but without positive results.

  • Trying to hide his inability to read or write by making fun of himself and others and getting into difficulties.

  • Fighting in class to hide insecurities.

  • Trying to be alone at all times.

  • School bunking

  • Some of the children may start talking very late.

  • Unable to spell the words.

  • Not reading aloud in the classroom.

  • Taking a long time in writing or complete homework.

  • Bad handwriting.

  • Trying to excuse himself from any school competition and everything

Dyslexia: Risk Factors

Dyslexia is not a disease, it's a condition that makes it difficult for a person to identify or process numbers and letters. For a normal person, it may look easy but a dyslexic child or teen may find it very difficult. There are several risk factors responsible for the development of dyslexia.

  • Family history. Some families have dyslexia in their generation, and the next generation may be dyslexic. It is better to be ready to track the early signs.

  • Head injury. If a person gets any head injury or has been under trauma, he may acquire dyslexia. In these, the patient will have the same symptom as normal dyslexia.

Dyslexia can be caught in childhood and with the care and special attention of teachers and family, the same may be treated. But if not, it may grow and the child may never be treated and he may learn to live with it all through his years. He may start accepting that he is right despite being wrong.

Dyslexia: Diagnosis

The diagnosis of dyslexia is mainly based on an assessment of the work that the child is doing in the classroom and his performance. He may be asked a series of questions and may be asked to perform some of the tasks. Some of the methods employed are −

  • Questions. Questions related to the family history of the child, his parents, and his grandparents' medical history. Also, the delivery whether premature or normal can be asked about.

  • Questionnaire. Various questions may be asked related to the onset of the problem the child is facing. His notebooks may be checked, and he may be asked to read aloud and write letters for verification.

  • Ear test. Some children may have problems with the ear and that may be the reason for the wrong understanding of the words.

  • Brain and other tests. Some other tests may be required to rule out any other disease.

Dyslexia: Treatment

There is no medicinal or surgical treatment available for dyslexia. The only way to treat is to manage it and look for early symptoms. The more early the problem is detected the easier it is to solve. Some of the treatment steps may be taken.

  • Teachers. Specialist teachers are best to deal with these cases. They understand the problem with the child and will be able to take care of all the nuisances. If detected early they will help the child from the very beginning.

  • Schools. Some of the schools take extra care of these children. They relax the examination procedure and give extra time for these children.

  • Family. The family is the quintessential factor in the diagnosis and treatment. In this competitive world, the family must understand the problem with the child and must provide all the necessary care and attention.

Dyslexia: Prevention

Dyslexia can't be prevented it can only be managed. It is, however, possible to treat it if caught early. Some of the preventive measures a family must take are listed below −

  • Understand the problem of your child

  • Give him love and support

  • Detect his problem early and provide him with special education

  • Read with him aloud

  • Try to make him understand his condition and provide relief that it is not a disease

  • Give importance to the child

  • Be his best friend

  • Talk to him regularly

  • Be in touch with the teachers and friends of your child


Dyslexia is not a disease it's a learning condition in which a person confuses with the words he is hearing and what the mind process. He may not be able to read or write properly, not be able to distinguish between alphabets or numbers.

The reason for dyslexia is not known and there is no medicine or surgeries available. The only way to treat this is an early diagnosis by parents and teachers. Also, love, support, and care are required to make a child past go this problem.

Dr. Durgesh Kumar Sinha
Dr. Durgesh Kumar Sinha


Updated on: 17-Apr-2023


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