Cronary Heart Disease: Causes, Symptoms, & Treatment

An average heart beats about 2.3 billion – 2.7 billion times in a life span of a human being. The heart is the most delicate and important organ of the body. It is of a size equal to a fist but is the strongest muscular system in the whole human body. It constitutes four chambers, two on the left and right, upper and lower sides called the atrium and ventricle. The heart comprises the cardiovascular system consisting of arteries, veins, and capillaries responsible for blood circulation around the body. It depends upon the various electric signals produced by the brain neurons to perform many other functions. The heart controls blood pressure and sends blood to all the organs and parts of the body. With such a complex structure and the important role of the heart exists, the risk factor of getting different types of cardiovascular issues. There are around 18 million cardiovascular patients worldwide, and daily reports of increasing cases. There are a wide number of reasons for getting such complex heart diseases. Coronary heart disease can be cured with awareness, precaution, and the right treatment.

Meaning of Coronary Heart Condition

Such a heart disease is a disease in which the human heart cannot circulate blood due to plaque formation in the heart arteries or the blocks caused in the heart chambers, sometimes due to the formation and collection of fat muscle in the heart. There may exist more than one such reason that eventually adds up, worsening the condition of the heart. Coronary heart disease affects the whole circulation system and the various cardiovascular system like valves, arteries, and electrical systems, limiting the blood flow in all necessary parts of the body. Low blood flow levels to the heart cause cell starvation leading further to a lack of oxygen in the cells of the heart, which may result in the death of the blood vessel in the heart and further heart attack


People suffering from heart disease may not initially feel the difference in their bodies. However, they may find basic difficulties in their daily life like heavy chest or high heart rates while exercising or taking stairs. Soon the symptoms may be frequently experienced. Some of the main issues or symptoms experienced by a person are chest pain, i.e., a tightening feeling, and a Sudden increase in heartbeat. A person may feel shortness of breath. Sometimes the heart pumps blood very slowly, due to which the person may feel fatigued. In worse conditions, They may have a heart attack or an episode. Some more examples of the symptoms are sweating, nausea and headaches.

Risk Factors

At a certain age having this type of heart disease may seem common as it depends upon the lifestyle one chooses. With age, the arteries start to narrow naturally. As far as gender is concerned, Men are more prone to have such heart conditions. Also, Family history is one of the biggest factors in it. Apart from such natural cases, it mainly depends upon the person's lifestyle choices, like smoking, lack of exercise, high Blood pressure, obesity, unhealthy diet, alcohol consumption, lack of sleep, etc.


Coronary artery disease affects both the industrialized and underdeveloped worlds. According to one study, CAD accounts for 2.2% of the worldwide illness burden and 32.7% of cardiovascular diseases. The expense of health care in the United States exceeds $200 billion annually. According to the American Heart Association's national health survey, 7.6% of men and 5.0% of women in the United States had coronary artery disease from 2009 to 2012. (AHA). During this time, 15.5 million Americans were infected with the illness. The prevalence of CAD increases with age, regardless of gender. According to the ONACI registry in France, the incidence of CAD was approximately 1% in the 45 to 65 age group, increasing to approximately 4% as the age group reached 75 to 84 years.


The formation of atherosclerotic plaque is a hallmark of the pathophysiology of CAD. Plaque is a fatty substance buildup that narrows the artery lumen and obstructs blood flow. Creating a "fatty streak" is the first phase in the process. Subendothelial deposition of lipid-laden macrophages, often known as foam cells, results in fatty streak formation. When a vascular injury occurs, the intima layer tears and monocytes move into the subendothelial region, where they mature into macrophages. These macrophages absorb oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles and produce foam cells. T cells are activated, and cytokines are released only to help in the pathogenic process. Released growth factors activate smooth muscles, which pick up oxidized LDL particles and collagen and deposit them alongside activated macrophages, increasing the number of foam cells. Subendothelial plaque is formed as a result of this procedure.

If the endothelium is not further harmed, this plaque may expand in size or become stable over time. A fibrous cap forms if the lesion remains stable and the lesion gets calcified over time. With time, the lesion might become hemodynamically substantial enough that not enough blood reaches the cardiac tissue during elevated demand, resulting in angina symptoms. At rest, however, symptoms would subside as the oxygen need decreases. A lesion must be at least 90% stenosed to elicit angina at rest. Some plaques can break, exposing tissue factors and resulting in thrombosis. Depending on the amount of injury, this thrombosis might result in subtotal or complete blockage of the lumen and the development of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in the form of unstable angina, NSTEMI, or STEMI.


There are many reasons for getting such heart disease. Along with time, the muscular system and the wall of the veins and arteries of the cardiovascular system may swell and thicken. This process is called Atherosclerosis. Another main reason for such a heart disease is plaque formation, arteries narrowing, and heart clotting. Due to these reasons, it is difficult for the blood to pass through the arteries' walls and ultimately distribute blood vessels and hormones to various body parts. High cholesterol, smoking, drinking, obesity, and diabetes are some of the factors that contribute to such heart disease.

Diagnosis and Treatment

To diagnose such heart disease, one must know the symptoms, family history, and quality of his life. The doctor may refer the person for further tests, including a treadmill test with a target heartbeat to be achieved by the person while running. At the same time, the machine will record the activity and the graphs of the heart. Holter test in which a holder is attached to the person for 24 hours to monitor the heart's activity. CT scan and MRI scan.

In some cases, the doctor may suggest an angiography. To prevent such heart disease, one must avoid smoking, maintain diabetes and blood pressure, have a balanced diet, frequent exercise, and control cholesterol. The treatment involves angiography, open heart surgery, medication, and mainly having a better and more active lifestyle


The heart is the most important vital organ in the human body. It has many important roles, like the distribution of blood and hormones to the body. A better heart will lead to a better quality of lifestyle. There are numerous cases of such heart disease, and this is increasing every day. The main reason to have such heart disease is plaque formation in the heart's arteries. If a person is feeling symptoms like increased heartbeat, over-sweating, frequent episodes, and heart attacks, breathlessness, then he may be found to be suffering from such heart disease. Such as heart disease can be cured by surgery, medication, etc. One can avoid such conditions by following a balanced and active lifestyle. People should be aware and educated about such heart and all other medical conditions.