Armed Conflict and Peace Agreement

There were very few such conflicts during this period, only nine. This has been observed and is one of the main features of the post-Cold War era. There has probably been a little interstate conflict for a long time. During the Cold War, however, internal conflicts became internationalized in ways that subordinated local issues to global confrontation. As a result, there is more conflict between states. Also, at the time, government affairs were more important.

What is War and Armed Conflict?

War is defined as −

  • A state of armed conflict between different states or groups within a country;

  • A state of competition or hostility between different people or groups, or

  • A prolonged campaign against an undesirable situation or activity.

Many reasons can cause war to break out between – or, more often, within – nations. Among them are economic interests, territorial interests, religion, nationalism, civil war and political revolution. Usually, the leaders of nations become the main instigators of conflict by instigating territorial disputes, attempting to control another country's natural resources, or using arbitrary power over others. Countries in protracted battle can become war-torn nations, needing decades to rebuild their infrastructure, economies, and other functions. There are two types of armed conflict, international armed conflict and non-international armed conflict. No gap exists between them; one or the other lives in the event of an armed conflict. There are no uncontrolled hostilities.

  • An international armed conflict (IAC) is a conflict between states. The scale and duration of the competition did not matter; it didn't matter that there was a formal declaration of war. If there is a conflict between the States leading to the intervention of the armed forces, the CAI will survive.

  • Non-international armed conflict (NIAC) is all other types of armed conflict. The law governing the NIAC was written initially in response to the horrors of civil wars. The NIAC follows the Geneva Convention through a general Article 3 that requires all people to be treated with humanity and that the injured and sick be cared for.There have been two interstate conflicts over government, both involving the United States. One was his intervention in Panama in 1989. The other case is the 2003 Iraq war to overthrow the regime of Saddam Hussein. The Panama case may be the last of the typical Cold War model. Nevertheless, the Cold War saw many interstate interventions to repress or support incumbent regimes.

Issues with Armed Conflicts

It is argued that such great power unilateral interventionism may be a thing of the past. There was an international operation to overthrow the military regime in Haiti in 1994 to bring about a democratically elected government. It was an operation led by the United States but under a United Nations mandate. The 2003 Iraq War was then an exceptional event. The initial issue was about eliminating any potential Iraqi weapons of mass destruction, but in the final round, it was about the regime itself.

The war was not sanctioned by the United Nations, although it had a limited collective circle, such as being supported by troops from the United Kingdom and Australia. When the occupation officially ended in 2004, the war in Iraq continued, but it was later recorded as an internal international conflict over the government. At that time, he also received the support of the United Nations. Thus, two other types accounted for the most significant number of all conflicts and wars during this period. Many have become very long, and the cumulative devastation is immeasurable.

Afghanistan is likely the most severe case, with more than a million deaths. The war in Bosnia, however terrible, was incomparable. The Rwandan genocide appears to be the most devastating human event of the decade. Murders target defenceless individuals. Shelters and churches are not spared. The genocide was short-lived. In this case, the killings are not even part of an armed conflict, nor do they serve a strategic military purpose. It was an attempt to wipe out the entire population.

There are distinct regional variations. Territorial disputes are virtually non-existent in South America. The conflict between Ecuador and Peru indicates unstable borders between the countries on the continent. Indeed, the Falkland/Malvinas conflict of the 1980s is an important reminder of this and the minor episodes reported around this conflict throughout the period.

However, South America has limited reliance on separatism and autonomy, which is common in other parts of the world. The opposite is Europe, where most disputes are related to territorial issues. This is more marked for wars, all of which involve territorial issues. This includes Northern Ireland. Most of the time, the conflict was concentrated in the Balkans and the Caucasus.

During the Cold War, conflict around government was central; thus, promoting democracy was central to political and academic thinking beyond the usual defensive considerations. The European integration project was born out of a desire to de-internationalize European affairs, which has been done relatively well in Western Europe.

Peace Agreement in Armed Conflicts

The peace agreement can be associated with the conflict triad. The first observation is that such an agreement can be concluded long after a particular conflict has begun. The near-simultaneous end of the war and the signing of a peace treaty in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the last months of 1995 are not typical. Peace agreements were reached in the 1990s for unarmed conflicts for many years. For example, there was a peace treaty in 1994 between Israel and Jordan. The most recent and severe military clashes between these parties date back to 1967.

Peace agreements are contracts intended to end violent conflict or significantly transform conflict so that conflict can be resolved more constructively. There are different types of agreements that can be reached in the peace process.

The agreement describes its structure as "three pillars", all linked and neatly arranged −

  • Autonomy

  • Referendum

  • Disarmament

A peace treaty is an agreement between two or more hostile parties, usually states or governments, formally ending a state of war between the parties.

This is different from an armistice, which is an agreement to end hostilities; a surrender in which the army pledges to surrender its weapons; or a cease-fire or armistice, in which the parties may agree to a temporary or permanent cessation of hostilities. The need for a peace treaty in modern diplomacy stems from the fact that even when the actual war ends and the fighting ceases, the legal state of war does not automatically cease when the actual fighting is over. the end and warring parties are still legally defined as enemies. This is evident from the definition of a "state of war" as "a lawful state created and terminated by official declaration, independent of actual armed hostilities and usually characterized by the application of the rules of war".

Furthermore, a peace agreement can be reached within a year while the armed conflict still has to end, and the deal has to be done next year or even later. As such, there need to be more peace agreements and ending war. This makes it more reasonable to deal with extended periods than to focus on annual changes.

There are difficulties in defining a peace agreement. The war between Iran and Iraq ended with both sides accepting a 1987 Security Council resolution. No treaty was signed between the two heads of state. Their support for the deal was the result of a Security Council decision. It does, however, provide for essential aspects of the matters in dispute to which both parties adhere, and there is no longer any conflict between them. Neither side can be said to have won the war, but both sides can claim that they prevented the other from winning. Security Council resolutions are the primary means of demonstrating the war's end.

The case of Kosovo is similar. It ended with formal negotiations between the Western powers and the Yugoslav government through intermediaries. It was a document that NATO and Yugoslavia could accept. This led to the cessation of the air war and the withdrawal of Yugoslav troops from Kosovo. Another complication is that there can be multiple agreements in the same conflict. As a result, agreements are cancelled, redone or renewed. This is why concepts like spoilers and spoiler management have become valuable to the international community.


Trichotomy is based on conflict incompatibility and is drawn from the parties' descriptions of the conflict. It does not consider 'ethnicity', 'religion' or 'ideology' separate categories. Such labels are difficult to analyze for comparison across situations and are not necessarily beneficial from a conflict resolution perspective. The political demands for change determine the outcome of a conflict. Variables "ethnicity," "religion," or another identity can cross categories and help understand the intensity of needs and the mobilization of social groups or associations. However, the conflict resolution must differ from the parties' specific requirements. They are captured by trichotomy.