9 Autoimmune Diseases That Affect Your Appearance

An autoimmune disease can be defined as a situation wherein a person's immune system starts attacking the body rather than defending itself from foreign threats such as bacteria and viruses. The immune systems are primarily responsible for protecting the body. There is no definite reason why the immune system sometimes responds to the body this way. There exist more than 100 types of autoimmune diseases in nature. Some of them include systemic lupus, diabetes, and arthritis.

Based on the type of autoimmune disease, the immune system may target and affect different tissues and organs of a person's body. As a result, the person may feel pain, rashes, fatigue, headaches, nausea, and other effects. For example, arthritis affects the joints and muscles in the human body. Crohn's disease targets the digestive tract of a human being. Graves' disease affects the endocrine system of the human being.

Autoimmune diseases affecting the appearance

Many types of autoimmune diseases exist, affecting different organs and tissues of the body. Around nine types of autoimmune diseases exist that affect a person's appearance. These diseases are discussed in detail as follows −


This is an inflammatory autoimmune skin disease. This type of disease occurs in a person’s body when the body produces new skin cells too quickly than required. The existing skin cells are not old enough to be shed from the body. As a result of this, the old skin cells and the new skin cells pile up and cause itchy rashes. These effects can be found in the scalp, knees, elbows, and back areas. This type of autoimmune disease can be cured by consistent treatment involving prescribed creams and medications, phototherapies, and some simple changes in the person's lifestyle.

Alopecia Areata

This autoimmune disease causes the immune system to target and attack a person's hair follicles. The symptoms of this disease include a person suddenly starting to lose large amounts of hair and causing a circular bald patch in a person's body. As a result of this disease, a person may lose all the hair present in their body. There does not exist any cure for this type of autoimmune disease yet. However, there are many ways by which hair growth can be regenerated or restarted in a person's body.


This type of autoimmune disease causes the immune system of the person's body to target and destroy the body cells that produce pigment. These cells are also called melanocytes. In this situation, the affected area's skin loses all stains and turns white. The affected areas include hair, eyes, and mouth insides. There is no cure for this autoimmune disease. However, there are many methods by which the pigment can be restored to bring back the skin tone.


In this autoimmune disease, the immune system attacks the thyroid. The thyroid gland produces low thyroid hormones, which slows the overall metabolism. The person experiences dryness in the skin, loss of hair in the body, and weight gain. The general treatment includes taking a pill at regular intervals containing artificially made hormones. The symptoms start improving as soon as the condition returns to normal.

Rheumatoid arthritis

In this autoimmune disease, the immune system attacks the joint tissues. This causes the joints in the hands and feet to become swollen and painful. The symptoms of this disease can be decreased by physical therapies, exercises, and taking standard prescribed medications that reduce the swelling of the joints of the person's body.

Type 1 Diabetes

This is a long-lasting autoimmune disease in which the person's immune system targets the pancreas, which creates insulin. This leads to extra energy cells staying in the bloodstream and eventually piling up. This can cause severe outcomes such as heart attacks. The treatment is the same as Vitiligo.


This autoimmune disease causes inflammation and rashes in the body when the immune system attacks various tissues and organs. The most common symptom of this type of disease is when a rash that resembles the shape of a butterfly across the nose and cheeks. These can be easily treated by consuming prescribed anti-inflammatory drugs and anti-malarial drugs.


This is another inflammatory disease when the immune system attacks the body tissues. The symptoms of this disease include rashes on the face, shoulders, knuckles, and eyelids. This disease is generally found in people aged 5-15 and 40-60. This type of autoimmune disease can be treated with immunosuppressants and corticosteroid medications.

Pernicious Anemia

This autoimmune disease leads the immune system to target the stomach cells. This makes it difficult for the intestines to absorb vitamin B12, which plays a critical role in developing red blood cells. The common symptoms include pale skin, swollen tongue, loss of appetite, and bleeding gums. Shots can easily treat this autoimmune system with vitamin B12 and oral supplements.

Due to the absence of a single, overarching cause, the precise mechanism that initiates the beginning of an autoimmune disease might differ from one type of autoimmunity-related sickness to another. This is because there is no single cause. The prevalence rate is roughly 2:1 for females, reflecting that females are more likely to be affected by these diseases. Several autoimmune disorders can affect a woman's capacity to conceive a child or her hormonal swings. Some of these diseases include lupus and multiple sclerosis. This is probably because male and female chromosomes store information that's slightly different from one another. There is a connection between genetics and various types of autoimmune diseases. As a result, an individual must have a solid understanding of the history of their own family.


People at a greater risk of developing an autoimmune disease should make an appointment with their primary care physician to undergo diagnostic testing and examination to determine whether or not they already have an autoimmune disorder. This can be done by determining whether or not they have already been diagnosed with an autoimmune disorder. If they are diagnosed, the most important thing for them is to get started as soon as possible on the appropriate treatments and medications for their disease to decrease the toll it takes on their bodies.