# Six Sigma - Defect Metrics

Before we go ahead, let us define two terms:

• A Six Sigma defect is defined as anything outside of customer specifications.

• A Six Sigma opportunity is the total quantity of chances for a defect.

This chapter provides a list formulae normally used to measure different metrics related to Six Sigma defects.

## Defects Per Unit - DPU

Total Number of Defects
DPU =    ------------------------
Total number of Product Units

The probability of getting 'r' defects in a sample having a given DPU rate can be predicted with the Poisson Distribution.

## Total Opportunities - TO

TO = Total number of Product Units x Opportunities

## Defects Per Opportunity - DPO

Total Number of Defects
DPO =    ------------------------
Total Opportunity

## Defects Per Million Opportunities - DPMO

DPMO =   DPO x 1,000,000

Defects Per Million Opportunities or DPMO can be then converted to sigma values using Yield to Sigma Conversion Table given in Six Sigma - Measure Phase.

According to the conversion table:

6 Sigma = 3.4 DPMO

## How to find your Sigma Level

• Clearly define the customer's explicit requirements.
• Count the number of defects that occur.
• Determine the yield-percentage of items without defects.
• Use the conversion chart to determine DPMO and Sigma Level.

## Simplified Sigma Conversion Table

30.9%             690,000          1.0
62.9%             308,000          2.0
93.3              66,800           3.0
99.4              6,210            4.0
99.98             320              5.0
99.9997           3.4              6.0