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HTML and XHTML Entities Reference

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Characters with special meaning in HTML and XHTML

Some characters are reserved in HTML XHTML. For example, you cannot use the greater than and less than signs or angle brackets within your text because the browser could mistake them for markup.

HTML and XHTML processors must support the five special characters listed in the table that follows.

Symbol Description Entity Name Number Code
" quotation mark " "
' apostrophe  ' '
& ampersand & &
< less-than &lt; &#60;
> greater-than &gt; &#62;

To write an element and attribute into your page so that the code is shown to the user rather than being processed by the browser (for example as <div id="character">) you would write:

&div id=&quot;character&quot;&gt;

There is also a long list of special characters that HTML 4.0.aware processors should support. In order for these to appear in your document, you can use either the numerical code or the entity name. For example, to insert a copyright symbol you could use either of the following:

&copy; 2007

or

&#169; 2007

ISO 8859-1 Character set is the most widly used character set. A complete reference of ISO 885901 character set is gievn below.

ISO 8859-1 Symbol Entities

Result Description Entity Name Number Code
  non-breaking space &nbsp; &#160;
¡ inverted exclamation mark &iexcl; &#161;
¤ currency &curren; &#164;
¢ cent &cent; &#162;
£ pound &pound; &#163;
¥ yen &yen; &#165;
¦ broken vertical bar &brvbar; &#166;
§ section &sect; &#167;
¨ spacing diaeresis &uml; &#168;
© copyright &copy; &#169;
ª feminine ordinal indicator &ordf; &#170;
« angle quotation mark (left) &laquo; &#171;
¬ negation &not; &#172;
­ soft hyphen &shy; &#173;
® registered trademark &reg; &#174;
trademark &trade; &#8482;
¯ spacing macron &macr; &#175;
° degree &deg; &#176;
± plus-or-minus  &plusmn; &#177;
² superscript 2 &sup2; &#178;
³ superscript 3 &sup3; &#179;
´ spacing acute &acute; &#180;
µ micro &micro; &#181;
paragraph &para; &#182;
· middle dot &middot; &#183;
¸ spacing cedilla &cedil; &#184;
¹ superscript 1 &sup1; &#185;
º masculine ordinal indicator &ordm; &#186;
» angle quotation mark (right) &raquo; &#187;
¼ fraction 1/4 &frac14; &#188;
½ fraction 1/2 &frac12; &#189;
¾ fraction 3/4 &frac34; &#190;
¿ inverted question mark &iquest; &#191;
× multiplication &times; &#215;
÷ division &divide; &#247;

ISO 8859-1 Character Entities

Result Description Entity Name Number Code
À capital a, grave accent &Agrave; &#192;
Á capital a, acute accent &Aacute; &#193;
 capital a, circumflex accent &Acirc; &#194;
à capital a, tilde &Atilde; &#195;
Ä capital a, umlaut mark &Auml; &#196;
Å capital a, ring &Aring; &#197;
Æ capital ae &AElig; &#198;
Ç capital c, cedilla &Ccedil; &#199;
È capital e, grave accent &Egrave; &#200;
É capital e, acute accent &Eacute; &#201;
Ê capital e, circumflex accent &Ecirc; &#202;
Ë capital e, umlaut mark &Euml; &#203;
Ì capital i, grave accent &Igrave; &#204;
Í capital i, acute accent &Iacute; &#205;
Î capital i, circumflex accent &Icirc; &#206;
Ï capital i, umlaut mark &Iuml; &#207;
Ð capital eth, Icelandic &ETH; &#208;
Ñ capital n, tilde &Ntilde; &#209;
Ò capital o, grave accent &Ograve; &#210;
Ó capital o, acute accent &Oacute; &#211;
Ô capital o, circumflex accent &Ocirc; &#212;
Õ capital o, tilde &Otilde; &#213;
Ö capital o, umlaut mark &Ouml; &#214;
Ø capital o, slash &Oslash; &#216;
Ù capital u, grave accent &Ugrave; &#217;
Ú capital u, acute accent &Uacute; &#218;
Û capital u, circumflex accent &Ucirc; &#219;
Ü capital u, umlaut mark &Uuml; &#220;
Ý capital y, acute accent &Yacute; &#221;
Þ capital THORN, Icelandic &THORN; &#222;
ß small sharp s, German &szlig; &#223;
à small a, grave accent &agrave; &#224;
á small a, acute accent &aacute; &#225;
â small a, circumflex accent &acirc; &#226;
ã small a, tilde &atilde; &#227;
ä small a, umlaut mark &auml; &#228;
å small a, ring &aring; &#229;
æ small ae &aelig; &#230;
ç small c, cedilla &ccedil; &#231;
è small e, grave accent &egrave; &#232;
é small e, acute accent &eacute; &#233;
ê small e, circumflex accent &ecirc; &#234;
ë small e, umlaut mark &euml; &#235;
ì small i, grave accent &igrave; &#236;
í small i, acute accent &iacute; &#237;
î small i, circumflex accent &icirc; &#238;
ï small i, umlaut mark &iuml; &#239;
ð small eth, Icelandic &eth; &#240;
ñ small n, tilde &ntilde; &#241;
ò small o, grave accent &ograve; &#242;
ó small o, acute accent &oacute; &#243;
ô small o, circumflex accent &ocirc; &#244;
õ small o, tilde &otilde; &#245;
ö small o, umlaut mark &ouml; &#246;
ø small o, slash &oslash; &#248;
ù small u, grave accent &ugrave; &#249;
ú small u, acute accent &uacute; &#250;
û small u, circumflex accent &ucirc; &#251;
ü small u, umlaut mark &uuml; &#252;
ý small y, acute accent &yacute; &#253;
þ small thorn, Icelandic &thorn; &#254;
ÿ small y, umlaut mark &yuml; &#255;

Other Entities Supported by HTML Browser:

Result Description Entity Name Number Code
Πcapital ligature OE &OElig; &#338;
œ small ligature oe &oelig; &#339;
Š capital S with caron &Scaron; &#352;
š small S with caron &scaron; &#353;
Ÿ capital Y with diaeres &Yuml; &#376;
ˆ modifier letter circumflex accent &circ; &#710;
˜ small tilde &tilde; &#732;
en space &ensp; &#8194;
em space &emsp; &#8195;
thin space &thinsp; &#8201;
zero width non-joiner &zwnj; &#8204;
zero width joiner &zwj; &#8205;
left-to-right mark &lrm; &#8206;
right-to-left mark &rlm; &#8207;
en dash &ndash; &#8211;
em dash &mdash; &#8212;
left single quotation mark &lsquo; &#8216;
right single quotation mark &rsquo; &#8217;
single low-9 quotation mark &sbquo; &#8218;
left double quotation mark &ldquo; &#8220;
right double quotation mark &rdquo; &#8221;
double low-9 quotation mark &bdquo; &#8222;
dagger &dagger; &#8224;
double dagger &Dagger; &#8225;
horizontal ellipsis &hellip; &#8230;
per mille  &permil; &#8240;
single left-pointing angle quotation &lsaquo; &#8249;
single right-pointing angle quotation &rsaquo; &#8250;
euro &euro; &#8364;


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