Decorator Pattern

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Decorator pattern allows to add new functionality an existing object without altering its structure. This type of design pattern comes under structural pattern as this pattern acts as a wrapper to existing class.

This pattern creates a decorator class which wraps the original class and provides additional functionality keeping class methods signature intact.

We are demonstrating use of Decorator pattern via following example in which we'll decorate a shape with some color without alter shape class.

Implementation

We're going to create a Shape interface and concrete classes implementing the Shape interface. We then create a abstract decorator class ShapeDecorator implementing the Shape interface and having Shape object as its instance variable.

RedShapeDecorator is concrete class implementing ShapeDecorator.

DecoratorPatternDemo, our demo class will use RedShapeDecorator to decorate Shape objects.

Decorator Pattern UML Diagram

Step 1

Create an interface.

Shape.java

public interface Shape {
   void draw();
}

Step 2

Create concrete classes implementing the same interface.

Rectangle.java

public class Rectangle implements Shape {

   @Override
   public void draw() {
      System.out.println("Shape: Rectangle");
   }
}

Circle.java

public class Circle implements Shape {

   @Override
   public void draw() {
      System.out.println("Shape: Circle");
   }
}

Step 3

Create abstract decorator class implementing the Shape interface.

ShapeDecorator.java

public abstract class ShapeDecorator implements Shape {
   protected Shape decoratedShape;

   public ShapeDecorator(Shape decoratedShape){
      this.decoratedShape = decoratedShape;
   }

   public void draw(){
      decoratedShape.draw();
   }	
}

Step 4

Create concrete decorator class extending the ShapeDecorator class.

RedShapeDecorator.java

public class RedShapeDecorator extends ShapeDecorator {

   public RedShapeDecorator(Shape decoratedShape) {
      super(decoratedShape);		
   }

   @Override
   public void draw() {
      decoratedShape.draw();	       
      setRedBorder(decoratedShape);
   }

   private void setRedBorder(Shape decoratedShape){
      System.out.println("Border Color: Red");
   }
}

Step 5

Use the RedShapeDecorator to decorate Shape objects.

DecoratorPatternDemo.java

public class DecoratorPatternDemo {
   public static void main(String[] args) {

      Shape circle = new Circle();

      Shape redCircle = new RedShapeDecorator(new Circle());

      Shape redRectangle = new RedShapeDecorator(new Rectangle());
      System.out.println("Circle with normal border");
      circle.draw();

      System.out.println("\nCircle of red border");
      redCircle.draw();

      System.out.println("\nRectangle of red border");
      redRectangle.draw();
   }
}

Step 6

Verify the output.

Circle with normal border
Shape: Circle

Circle of red border
Shape: Circle
Border Color: Red

Rectangle of red border
Shape: Rectangle
Border Color: Red


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