# What is Programming Language?

Compiler DesignProgramming LanguagesComputer Programming

Programming languages are documentation that is implemented on a machine (computer) for the statement of algorithms and data structures. The term Programming Language is made up of two different words namely Programming and Language. These two words are defined as follows −

Programming − When a specific program is to be determined, it is essential to design statements or instructions for the computer to carry out. The art of writing instructions for a computer to determine a particular task is called programming.

Language − A language is defined as the set of all possible strings, words or sentences that can be derived from a given alphabet (a set of input symbols denoted by Σ. Mathematically, a language L is defined as −

$$\mathrm{L \:\subseteq\:\sum{*}}$$

where $\sum{*}$=Set of the possible strings derived from a given alphabet $\sum$. For example, consider a machine language where $\sum$={0,1}

Therefore, $\sum{*}$={∧,0,1,00,01,10,11,….}

Clearly,

$$\mathrm{L \:\subseteq\:\sum{*}.}$$

Programming Language − A programming language is a computer language that can be used by programmers (developers) to connect with computers. It is a set of instructions written in any particular language (C, C++, Java, and Python) to implement a definite task. A programming language can create desktop applications, websites, and mobile applications.

## History of Programming Language

The first programming language anticipates the devices. From the first, the languages were codes. During nine months in 1842-1843, Ada Lovelace specified a detailed method for calculating Bernoulli numbers with Charles Babbage’s Analytical Engine.

After some years, Herman Hollerith realized that it can encode the information on punch cards. It can pass to encode the 1890 census information on punch cards. The first computer codes were specific for the operations. In the first decade of the twentieth century, mathematical evaluations depended on decimal numbers.

In the 1940s the first certainly modern, automated powered computers were generated. The definite speed and memory space forced the developer to create hand-tuned assembly language programs. In 1948, Konrad Zuse advertised a paper about its programming language Plankalkul.

In the 1950s the first three modern programming languages, whose descendants are still in widespread use today were created.

• FORTRAN, the Formula Translator, was created by John W.Backusetal.

• LISP, the LIST Processor invented by John McCarthy etal.

• COBOL, the Common Business Oriented Language, established by the short-range Committee, densely affected by Grace Hopper.

Some other programming languages, developed during the 1950s and 1960s include Regional Assembly Language, ALGOL58, APL, Simula, BASIC, and PL/I. The duration from the late 1960s to the late 1970s carries a major flowering of programming language. Some important languages developed during this course involve simula, small talk, Pascal, Forth, C, Prolog.ML, and SQL.

Published on 22-Oct-2021 11:34:13