Found 203 Articles for Computer Programming

Fuzzy Logic and Probability: The Confusing Terms

Updated on 14-Oct-2022 11:58:23
In this article, you will understand the difference between fuzzy logic and probability. Fuzzy logic It is a many-valued logic where the truth value of variables may be a real number between 0 and 1, including 0 and 1. Everything is associated with a degree. It is based on natural language processing. It can be integrated with programming. It is best suited for approximation. It is generally used by quantitative analysts. It helps understand the concept of vagueness. It captures the meaning of partial truth. The degree of membership is in a set. It is used in air conditioners, ... Read More

Difference between Von Neumann and Harvard Architecture

Pradeep Kumar
Updated on 29-Jul-2022 09:05:50
There are two distinct varieties of digital computer architectures, each of which provides a description of the functioning and execution of computer systemsThe first is known as the Von Neumann Architecture, which was designed by the well-known physicist and mathematician John Von Neumann in the late 1940s.The second is known as the Harvard Architecture, which was based on the original Harvard Mark relay-based computer and used separate memory systems to store data and instructions. Both of these computer architectures were developed in the 1950s.In the original Harvard architecture, data and instructions were both stored in electro-mechanical counters, while the instructions ... Read More

Convert the following LEX program into Lexical Analyzer.AUXILIARY DEFINITIONS − − −TRANSLATION RULES a{ } abb{ } a*b+

Updated on 08-Nov-2021 13:17:06
SolutionConvert the pattern into NFA’sMake a Combined NFAConvert NFA to DFAA = ε − closure (0) = {0, 1, 3, 7}The transition on symbols a, b from state AFor State Aε − closure (Ta)                              ε − closure (Tb)= ε − closure ({2, 4, 7})                  = ε − closure ({8})= {2, 4, 7} = B                                = {8} = CFor State Bε − closure (7) ... Read More

What is syntax-directed translation schemes in compiler design?

Updated on 08-Nov-2021 11:25:31
It is a kind of notation in which each production of Context-Free Grammar is related with a set of semantic rules or actions, and each grammar symbol is related to a set of Attributes. Thus, the grammar and the group of semantic Actions combine to make syntax-directed definitions.The translation may be the generation of intermediate code, object code, or adding the information in symbol table about constructs type. The modern compiler uses the syntax-directed translation that makes the user’s life easy by hiding many implementation details and free the user from having to specify explicitly the order in which semantic ... Read More

What is Implementation of Block Structured Language in compiler design?

Updated on 08-Nov-2021 11:31:20
A block is a statement containing its own local data declaration. The concept of a block is originated with ALGOL. The block-structured language permits an array with adjustable length. The main feature of blocks is their bracketing structure (begin and end used in ALGOL) in which they can define their data.Activation Record for Block Structured LanguagesBlock structured language like ALGOL, and PL/I permit adjustable arrays, i.e., of varying length. Therefore, we cannot store irregular size arrays in between activation records. It can allocate the flexible or variable arrays at one corner of the activation record or above the fixed-size data. ... Read More

What is Block Structure?

Updated on 08-Nov-2021 11:21:51
A block is a statement containing its own local data declaration. The concept of a block is originated with ALGOL. The block-structured language permits an array with adjustable length. The main feature of blocks is their bracketing structure (begin and end used in ALGOL) in which they can define their data. In 'C' language, the syntax of the block is −{    declaration statements; }where the braces limit the block. The characteristic of a block is its nesting structure. Delimiters mark the starting and end of the block. In 'C' language, the braces { } act as delimiters, while ALGOL ... Read More

What is Stack Allocation of Procedure Calls?

Updated on 08-Nov-2021 11:10:08
In stack allocation, it can analyze how the memory is allocated at runtime when a procedure is called & when the value from the procedure is returned.Passing Parameter to Procedure (param x)− When actual parameter x is passed to the procedure, it will be pushed into the stack, i.e., push (x).∴ param(x) refers to push (x) which refers to decrementing of the top pointer from N + 1 to N and x will be pushed onto the stack.∴ The following statements will be = top – 1*top = x or 0[top] = xHere 0[top] means 0 offsets from the ... Read More

What is Implementation of Simple Stack Allocation Scheme

Updated on 08-Nov-2021 11:07:02
Stack Allocation scheme is the simplest Run-Time Storage Management Technique. The storage is allocated sequentially in the stack beginning at one end. Storage should be freed in the reverse order of allocation so that a block of storage being released is always at the top of the stack.A program consists of data and procedures. On execution of each procedure, some amount of memory is occupied, which has information regarding the procedure, i.e., its actual parameters, number of arguments, return address, return values & local data, etc. That part of memory is the Activation Record of that procedure.Activation RecordAn Activation Record ... Read More

What is Heap Allocation?

Updated on 08-Nov-2021 11:02:15
Heap allocation is the most flexible allocation scheme. Allocation and deallocation of memory can be done at any time and any place depending upon the user's requirement. Heap allocation is used to allocate memory to the variables dynamically and when the variables are no more used then claim it back.Heap management is specialized in data structure theory. There is generally some time and space overhead associated with heap manager. For efficiency reasons, it may be useful to handle small activation records of a particular size as a special case, as follows −For each size of interest, keep the linked list ... Read More

What is Stack Allocation?

Updated on 08-Nov-2021 10:59:34
The stack allocation is a runtime storage management technique. The activation records are pushed and popped as activations begin and end respectively.Storage for the locals in each call of the procedure is contained in the activation record for that call. Thus, locals are bound to fresh storage in each activation, because a new activation record is pushed onto the stack when the call is made.It can be determined the size of the variables at a run time & hence local variables can have different storage locations & different values during various activations. Suppose that the registered top marks the top ... Read More
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