What are the components of the Data Communication System?

Data communication is nothing but the exchange of data between any two devices via transmission media.


There are five main components of data communication and they are explained below −


This is the most valuable asset of a system for data communication. The message actually refers to data that is to be shared or a piece of information. A message is in any form, like a text file, an audio file, a video file, and so on.


Someone who can play the role of a source must be there to pass messages from source to destination. The sender plays a part of the data communication device root. A device that sends data messages is easy. The node can be a computer, mobile device, telephone, laptop, video camera, workstation, etc.


It is the destination where messages sent by the source have finally arrived. It is a message-receiving system. The receiver is in the form of a computer, cell phone, workstation, etc., identical to the sender.

Transmission Medium

There must be something in the entire data communication process that could act as a bridge between sender and receiver. The transmission is the physical path from the sender to the recipient where the information or message passes.

The examples of transmission medium are twisted pair cable, fibre optic cable, radio waves, microwaves, etc. The transmission medium could be guided (with wires) or unguided (without wires).


Different sets of rules have already been designed by the designers of communication systems to control data communication, reflecting a sort of agreement between communicating devices. These are characterized as protocols.

The protocol is also called as a set of rules regulating data communication. If two separate devices are connected, but there is no protocol between them, there will be no contact between the two devices of any sort.