The hardware components of a computer are classified into five groups are Input unit, Central processing unit, Output Unit, Control Unit, Arithmetic & logical unit.
Input units are used by the computer to read the information. The most frequently used input devices are keyboards, mouse, joysticks, trackballs, microphones, and so on. Whenever a key is clicked, the matching letter or digit is necessarily interpreted into its equivalent binary code and communicate over a cable to either the memory or the processor.
The output unit is the reverse of the input unit. When the processor sends the output to the output unit. The output unit modifies the data supported by a computer system from binary language to human language. In this process, data is transmitted in an external environment such as a monitor and sound.
A central processing unit is referred to as a computer circuitry within a computer that transfers out the instructions given by a computer program by executing the basic arithmetic, logical, control, and input/output (I/O) operations determined by the instructions.
The Memory unit can be defined as the storage location in which programs are stored which are running, and that includes information required by the running programs.
There are two types of Memory Unit such as follows −
The control unit is a component of a computer's central processing unit that relates to the operation of the processor. It communicates the computer's memory, arithmetic/logic unit, and input and output devices how to counter to a program's instructions. The control unit is also referred to as the nerve center of a computer system.
There are various arithmetic and logical operations of a computer are implemented in the ALU (Arithmetic and Logical Unit) of the processor. It executes arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and also logical operations including AND, OR, NOT operations.