What are the hardware components of the Computer System?

The hardware components of a computer are classified into five groups are Input unit, Central processing unit, Output Unit, Control Unit, Arithmetic & logical unit.

Input unit

Input units are used by the computer to read the information. The most frequently used input devices are keyboards, mouse, joysticks, trackballs, microphones, and so on. Whenever a key is clicked, the matching letter or digit is necessarily interpreted into its equivalent binary code and communicate over a cable to either the memory or the processor.

Output unit

The output unit is the reverse of the input unit. When the processor sends the output to the output unit. The output unit modifies the data supported by a computer system from binary language to human language. In this process, data is transmitted in an external environment such as a monitor and sound.

Central processing unit

A central processing unit is referred to as a computer circuitry within a computer that transfers out the instructions given by a computer program by executing the basic arithmetic, logical, control, and input/output (I/O) operations determined by the instructions.

Memory unit

The Memory unit can be defined as the storage location in which programs are stored which are running, and that includes information required by the running programs.

There are two types of Memory Unit such as follows −

  • Primary Memory − Primary memory includes a huge number of semiconductor storage cells, suited for saving a bit of data. The word length of a computer is between 16-64 bits. It is also referred to as the volatile form of memory. It represents when the system is shut down, anything included in RAM is lost.
  • Secondary Memory − Secondary memory is used when a huge amount of information and programs have to be saved for a permanent basis. It is also referred to as the Non-volatile memory form of memory. It represents the information is saved permanently regardless of shut down.

Control unit

The control unit is a component of a computer's central processing unit that relates to the operation of the processor. It communicates the computer's memory, arithmetic/logic unit, and input and output devices how to counter to a program's instructions. The control unit is also referred to as the nerve center of a computer system.

Arithmetic & logical unit

There are various arithmetic and logical operations of a computer are implemented in the ALU (Arithmetic and Logical Unit) of the processor. It executes arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and also logical operations including AND, OR, NOT operations.