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# Signals and Systems – Properties of Region of Convergence (ROC) of the Z-Transform

## Z-Transform

The Z-transform (ZT) is a mathematical tool which is used to convert the difference equations in time domain into the algebraic equations in z-domain.

Mathematically, if $\mathit{x}\mathrm{\left(\mathit{n}\right)}$ is a discrete-time signal or sequence, then its *bilateral* or *two-sided Z-transform* is defined as −

$$\mathrm{\mathit{Z}\mathrm{\left[\mathit{x}\mathrm{\left(\mathit{n}\right)}\right]}\:\mathrm{=}\:\mathit{X}\mathrm{\left(\mathit{z}\right)}\:\mathrm{=}\:\sum_{\mathit{n=-\infty }}^{\infty }\mathit{x}\mathrm{\left(\mathit{n}\right)}\mathit{z}^{-\mathit{n}}}$$

Where, **z** is a complex variable.

## Region of Convergence (ROC) of Z-Transform

The set of points in z-plane for which the Z-transform of a discrete-time sequence $\mathit{x}\mathrm{\left(\mathit{n}\right)}$, i.e., $\mathit{X}\mathrm{\left(\mathit{z}\right)}$ converges is called the **region of convergence (ROC)** of $\mathit{X}\mathrm{\left(\mathit{z}\right)}$.

## Properties of ROC of Z-Transform

The region of convergence (ROC) of Z-transform has the following properties −

The ROC of the Z-transform is a ring or disc in the z-plane centred at the origin.

The ROC of the Z-transform cannot contain any poles.

The ROC of Z-transform of an LTI stable system contains the unit circle.

The ROC of Z-transform must be connected region. When the Ztransform $\mathit{X}\mathrm{\left(\mathit{z}\right)}$ is a rational, then its ROC is bounded by poles or extends up to infinity.

For $\mathit{x}\mathrm{\left(\mathit{n}\right)} \:\mathrm{=}\: \mathit{\delta}\mathrm{\left(\mathit{n}\right )}$, i.e., impulse sequence is the only sequence whose ROC of Z-transform is the entire z-plane.

If $\mathit{x}\mathrm{\left(\mathit{n}\right)}$ is an infinite duration causal sequence, then its ROC is $\left|\mathit{z} \right|>\mathit{a}$, i.e., it is the exterior of a circle of the radius equal to a.

If $\mathit{x}\mathrm{\left(\mathit{n}\right)}$ is an infinite duration anti-causal sequence, then its ROC is $\left|\mathit{z} \right|<\mathit{b}$, i.e., it is the interior of a circle of the radius equal to b.

If $\mathit{x}\mathrm{\left(\mathit{n}\right)}$ is an infinite duration two-sided sequence, then its ROC is $\mathit{a}<\left|\mathit{z} \right|<\mathit{b}$, i.e., it consists of a ring in the z-plane, which is bounded on the interior and exterior by a pole and does not contain any poles.

If $\mathit{x}\mathrm{\left(\mathit{n}\right)}$ is a finite duration causal sequence (i.e., right-sided sequence), then its ROC is the entire z-plane except at z = 0.

If $\mathit{x}\mathrm{\left(\mathit{n}\right)}$ is a finite duration anti-causal sequence (i.e., left sided sequence), then its ROC is the entire z-plane except at $z\:\mathrm{=}\:\mathit{\infty}$.

If $\mathit{x}\mathrm{\left(\mathit{n}\right)}$ is a finite duration two-sided sequence, then its ROC is the entire z-plane except at z = 0 and $z\:\mathrm{=}\:\mathit{\infty}$.

The ROC of the sum of two or more sequences is equal to the intersection of the ROCs of these sequences.

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