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Reproduction in Organisms MCQs
Reproduction, also termed procreation, is a course of biological events found in all organisms by which the organism reproduces new creatures. It is a fundamental feature in all organisms. There are two kinds of reproduction found in all organisms, that is, asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction. In asexual reproduction, a partner is not required while in sexual reproduction a partner is mandatory.
What is Reproduction in Organisms?
Reproduction is responsible for ensuring the continuity of the species that linger on earth over multiple generations. The course of reproduction is not the same in all the creatures on earth. The events of reproduction vary from one organism to the other. Primarily two kinds of ways are there with which an organism can reproduce.
In the course of sexual reproduction, offspring are produced which is genetically unique because of the transference of the genetic material from both the parents involved in the course of reproduction. In the asexual course of reproduction, however, one organism can reproduce without the requirement of another individual.
Types of Reproduction
Organism on earth continues to exist through reproduction. In general, there are two kinds of reproduction to be found, that is sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction. Some of them are mentioned below
It is referred to as the event of reproduction in which one particular organism is capable to reproduce a new identical organism. The event involves rapid growth in terms of population and no partner is required to be involved in this event. There is however, no genetic diversity noticed during the process, this aspect makes organisms more vulnerable to diseases and nutritional deficiencies. These events are further divided into four segments.
Figure 1: Binary fission
Binary fission: In this event, the cell splits into two cells that carry a copy of DNA from their parent.
Budding: A small budlike growth is noticed that gives birth to a new organism
Fragmentation. The parent splits into different parts and they grow into a new individual.
Figure 2: Sexual reproduction
In this event, male and female gametes are capable of producing offspring. This is a slow and complex process and the organisms that are produced are genetically diverse. Different multicellular organisms including humans produce sexually.
Figure 3: Pollination
Plants are known to show both sexual and asexual modes of reproduction. Sexual reproduction is seen from pollination. Some plants produce seeds through apomixes. In this case, ovules and ovaries give rise to new seeds.
Events in Sexual Reproduction
Various events are involved in this mode of reproduction −
Pre-fertilization events are noticed where gametogenesis and gamete transfer takes place.
The formation of the zygote takes place during the fertilization stages. In this stage, gamete starts fusing through syngamy.
The formation of the diploid zygote and the embryo develops through cell division and cell differentiation.
Reproduction in Organisms MCQs
Q1. What are the most notable traits of planaria?
a. They can hibernate
b. They can survive without air
c. Planaria can generate bioluminescence
d. These organisms can regenerate.
Answer: d. These organisms can regenerate.
Q2. What is fusion occurring between unrelated gametes called?
Answer: c. Allogamy
Q3. How does bryophyllum daigremontianum reproduce?
a. They produce by budding
b. They can reproduce through vegetative propagation
c. They reproduce through fission
d. They can reproduce through fragmentation
Answer: b. They can reproduce through vegetative propagation
Q4. What is the process termed when a living tissue from a plant is extracted and placed in a different medium?
d. None of the above
Answer: c. Explants
Q5. What is the form of reproduction noticed in hydra?
a. Sexual reproduction
b. Asexual reproduction
d. None of the Above
Answer: b. Asexual reproduction
Q6. Which of the following is not a process of vegetative reproduction?
c. Lytic cycle
Answer: c. Lytic cycle
Q7. Which of the following is an asexual reproduction where genetically identical copies of different plants are produced?
a. The events of layering
b. The course of binary fission
c. Clonal propagation
Answer: c. Clonal propagation
Q8.Which of the following parts of plants show totipotency?
Answer: b. Meristem
Q9. Which of the following is the property of an undifferentiated cell through which it can potentially develop into an entirely new plant?
Answer: a. Totipotency
Q10. Which of the following factor determines the development of the root and shoot during tissue culture?
a. Auxin and cytokinin ratio
d. None of the above
Answer: a. Auxin and cytokinin ratio
The organisms found on earth can produce through both sexual and asexual processes. Most unicellular organisms produce asexually, various other creatures like birds, and reptiles produce through asexual processes. Humans and most mammals produce through the sexual mode of reproduction. Plants on the other hand can reproduce through both sexual and asexual processes.
Q1. What are oviparous and viviparous animals?
Ans. The animals that can lay eggs in an external environment are known to be oviparous animals. Most notable oviparous organisms are birds and reptiles. The organisms, which give birth to young offspring, are viviparous creatures.
Q2. What are the examples of asexual reproduction?
Ans. Binary fission is common in the case of amoeba; budding is mostly noticed in hydra. Planaria reproduce through the stages of fragmentation. Aspergillus and penicillium can reproduce through sporogenesis, where a new organism can grow from spores, these spores spread with the assistance of winds or locomotion of animals.
Q3. What are the advantages of sexual reproduction?
Ans. Certain advantages are associated with sexual reproduction. Genetic variation is noticed in this type of reproduction that is crucial in courses of individuality and effective evolution of the species. Evolution is also another important aspect where adaptability of the organisms is involved and useless traits removed, hence producing a more efficient generation of organisms.
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