Reproduction in Animals


The process of reproduction is classified into two divisions - they are known as sexual and asexual reproduction. During the time of sexual reproduction, there are two of the same species that share an offspring by giving some of the traits. The second type of reproduction is known as asexual reproduction. In this type of reproduction a living organism is able to make offspring without the help of a partner. They have several ways in order to reproduce themselves. In this form of reproduction, all the species can extend the existence of their order to live on the planet.

Modes of Reproduction

The mode of reproduction refers to the two types of reproduction that exist on the planet. These modes of reproduction are here to look after sexual and asexual forms. There are various characteristics that are present in these two forms of reproduction. When a species undergoes sexual reproduction they are able to pass down a lot of traits from both the male and female species. This is the reason why the offspring of the species is able to grow based on those characteristics found in the gene. In order to give an example, a dog with some spots on its body mates with another dog that have the same spots. When the offspring comes into the world they are able to look like their mother and father. This is a trait that can be seen during the time of sexual reproduction.

During the time of asexual reproduction, the species is able to give birth to offspring without mating with someone. There are a few set of features that draws a line of difference in between sexual and asexual reproduction. Unlike sexual reproduction, the process of fertilization never takes place. This is the reason why the process of asexual reproduction is not able to form gametes.

There is a time that takes to reproduce an offspring. In order to explain the feature, there is a unique example; species like elephants take a couple of years to give birth to offspring. Something as small as a hydra tries to reproduce it maintains a fast process of reproduction. They are able to make an offspring in a matter of minutes at the most. Here, all the modes of reproduction are described with a proper explanation.

Process of Fertilization

Figure 1: Process of Fertilization

The process of fertilization occurs when the sperm cells from the male of the species meet with the egg from the female species. This is the reason why they are able to form a cluster of cells which divides to grow into a foetus. The sperm cells need to travel through the fallopian tube to penetrate a layer of the ovum. This name of this layer over the ovum is called the zona pellucida. The function of this layer is to protect the egg that is present beneath the layer. When sperm cells are able to fuse with the female egg, the formation of a zygote is complete. The overall process of a reproduction comes to an end when the process of fertilization starts. In this case, the cell multiplies to develop into a foetus that stays in the womb until the end of the gestation period.

Difference between Viviparous and Oviparous Animals

Viviparous animals give birth to offspring.Oviparous animals are the ones that lay eggs. The offspring hatches out of the egg over a span of time that differs from one family to the other.
Viviparous fertilizes inside the wombOviparous can have internal and external types of fertilization.
Viviparous animals makes the offspring develop inside the body of a female from the species.Oviparous animals develop the embryo outside the womb.
Viviparous animals grow up in a safe environment. The chances of survival are lesser for oviparous animals as they grow in extreme environments. One such example of an extreme environment is the ostrich eggs that are stolen by foxes in the wild.

Table 1: Difference Between Viviparous and Oviparous Animals

Types of Asexual Reproduction

Figure 2: Fragmentation in Star Fish

The types of asexual reproduction are -

  • Binary Fission is the time when a parent cell divides into two different cells. This happens when the amoeba tries to reproduce.

  • The process of fragmentation is another process of asexual reproduction. Here the organism breaks into fragments and every piece become a living organism.

There are many other forms of asexual reproduction apart from the two mentioned in points.


In this tutorial, all the learners are able to understand the ways of reproduction. There is a process of fertilization that explains the formation of a zygote by sexual reproduction.

Diagrams are here to assist the learners in developing a clear notion about the concept.


Q1. What are the three types of animal reproduction?

Ans. Three types of animal reproduction are fission, budding, fragmentation and parthenogenesis. In addition to that, sexual reproduction is mainly achieved through the recombination of cells between males and females.

Q2. What is reproduction system of the animals?

Ans. Reproduction systems of the vertebrates consist of gonads and associated ducts as well as glands. Gonads mainly develop gametes and hormones that are important for reproduction.

Q3. What are the two modes of reproduction among animals?

Ans. The two modes of reproduction that are used by the animals are sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction.

Updated on: 13-Apr-2023


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