Insert into a Binary Search Tree in C++

C++Server Side ProgrammingProgramming

Suppose we have a binary search tree. we have to write only one method, that performs the insertion operation with a node given as a parameter. We have to keep in mind that after the operation, the tree will remain BST also. So if the tree is like −

if we insert 5, then the tree will be −

To solve this, we will follow these steps −

  • This method is recursive. this is called insert(), this takes a value v.
  • if root is null, then create a node with given value v and make that as root
  • if value of root > v, then
    • left of root := insert(left of the root, v)
  • else right of the root := insert(right of the root, v)
  • return root

Example(C++)

Let us see the following implementation to get a better understanding −

 Live Demo

#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
class TreeNode{
   public:
      int val;
      TreeNode *left, *right;
      TreeNode(int data){
         val = data;
         left = right = NULL;
      }
};
void insert(TreeNode **root, int val){
   queue<TreeNode*> q;
   q.push(*root);
   while(q.size()){
      TreeNode *temp = q.front();
      q.pop();
      if(!temp->left){
         if(val != NULL)
            temp->left = new TreeNode(val);
         else
            temp->left = new TreeNode(0);
         return;
      }
      else{
         q.push(temp->left);
      }
      if(!temp->right){
         if(val != NULL)
            temp->right = new TreeNode(val);
         else
            temp->right = new TreeNode(0);
         return;
      }
      else{
         q.push(temp->right);
      }
   }
}
TreeNode *make_tree(vector<int> v){
   TreeNode *root = new TreeNode(v[0]);
   for(int i = 1; i<v.size(); i++){
      insert(&root, v[i]);
   }
   return root;
}
void tree_level_trav(TreeNode*root){
   if (root == NULL) return;
      cout << "[";
   queue<TreeNode *> q;
   TreeNode *curr;
   q.push(root);
   q.push(NULL);
   while (q.size() > 1) {
      curr = q.front();
      q.pop();
      if (curr == NULL){
         q.push(NULL);
      }
      else {
         if(curr->left)
            q.push(curr->left);
         if(curr->right)
            q.push(curr->right);
         if(curr->val == 0 || curr == NULL){
            cout << "null" << ", ";
         }
         else{
            cout << curr->val << ", ";
         }
      }
   }
   cout << "]"<<endl;
}
class Solution {
public:
   TreeNode* insertIntoBST(TreeNode* root, int val) {
      if(!root)return new TreeNode(val);
      if(root->val > val){
         root->left = insertIntoBST(root->left, val);
      }
      else root->right = insertIntoBST(root->right, val);
         return root;
   }
};
main(){
   Solution ob;
   vector<int> v = {4,2,7,1,3};
   TreeNode *root = make_tree(v);
   tree_level_trav(ob.insertIntoBST(root, 5));
}

Input

[4,2,7,1,3]
5

Output

[4,2,7,1,3,5]
raja
Published on 27-Feb-2020 10:46:51
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