Earthquakes are caused when the rock which is present beneath the ground starts to rupture or breaks the ground along a fault line.
Earthquakes usually occur when the Earth's crust which is also known as tectonic plates move past each other under the ground. Due to this, a sudden release of energy is formed which gives rise to seismic waves, and these seismic waves will shake the ground.
The earthquakes affect the geography of the earth in the following ways:
Ground shaking is a frequent result of earthquakes.
When earthquakes have occurred, the first thing the earthquake effects is the ground.
When the rocks are rubbing past each other, a sudden release of energy is formed which gives rise to seismic waves which make the ground shake.
When the seismic waves pass through the ground, first small earthquakes are generated and then followed immediately by violent earthquakes.
Due to ground shaking, buildings and roads can be destroyed and in some cases, people have died a terrible death being found under a building.
Ground will start to rupture when earthquakes are formed.
The ground will start to rupture when the earthquakes move along a fault which starts breaking the earth surface into small parts giving rise to ruptures in the Earth's surface.
The pipelines in the city will get totally damaged and the wires present in the earth will also get damaged.
And in some countries there are underground tunnels present, these tunnels will get destroyed beyond expectations. Underground, tunnels are very expensive to build again which will be a huge loss.
Landslides are caused by both ground shaking and ground rupture.
Landslides are formed when the tectonic plates present beneath the earth graze against each other which gives rise to the sustained shaking of unstable slopes.
Landslides can easily destroy buildings in the city, roads and railroad lines, and they destroy hilltop homes causing the homes to tumble down from the hills.
Tsunami is the most devastating effect due to earthquakes.
Tsunami or tidal waves are a series of water waves that are caused when the sea bed or sea floor moves vertically upwards in an earthquake.
Tsunamis have the potential to wipe out half a city in minutes. Tsunamis are also known as tidal waves and are a grave hazard to many parts of the world.
Tsunamis can travel far distances in a short period of time. Tsunami speeds have been measured in the ocean and they can travel up to 700 km/hr which is comparable to some jet planes.
Fires are also generated in the city due to earthquakes.
Fire is a major source of damage or destruction because of an earthquake.
The natural gas is easily affected by the ground ruptures and liquefaction both contributing to the igniting of fire and making the efforts to control the fire impossible.
Once a fire has broken out, it's very difficult to contain it as it will spread far and wide.