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How does the failure of rainfall affect people on the earth?
- The soil becomes dry.
- The water levels in rivers, lakes, dams, etc. may fall. Ponds and canals may even dry up.
- The groundwater level falls.
A drought is a prolonged period of dry weather, when an area gets less than its normal amount of rain, over a long period.
The causes of droughts are:
1. Deforestation reduces the amount of water stored in the soil. As rain falls on the soil, it leads to soil erosion and desertification, which can lead to drought.
2. Low surface water flows: Using surface water in large amounts to irrigate crops and for various other human activities, results in the drying up of groundwater, lakes, and rivers.
3. Global warming emissions of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) that increase the Earth’s temperature result in increased evaporation and less rainfall, which leads to the drought.
4. Air circulation and weather patterns: Water is stored on the ground and also in the air. Weather patterns rotate the water in the air, which sometimes gets delayed in reaching certain regions and leads to drought in those regions.]
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