- Graph Theory Tutorial
- Graph Theory - Home
- Graph Theory - Introduction
- Graph Theory - Fundamentals
- Graph Theory - Basic Properties
- Graph Theory - Types of Graphs
- Graph Theory - Trees
- Graph Theory - Connectivity
- Graph Theory - Coverings
- Graph Theory - Matchings
- Graph Theory - Independent Sets
- Graph Theory - Coloring
- Graph Theory - Isomorphism
- Graph Theory - Traversability
- Graph Theory - Examples
- Graph Theory Useful Resources
- Graph Theory - Quick Guide
- Graph Theory - Useful Resources
- Graph Theory - Discussion

# Graph Theory - Independent Sets

Independent sets are represented in sets, in which

there should not be

**any edges adjacent to each other**. There should not be any common vertex between any two edges.there should not be

**any vertices adjacent to each other**. There should not be any common edge between any two vertices.

## Independent Line Set

Let ‘G’ = (V, E) be a graph. A subset L of E is called an independent line set of ‘G’ if no two edges in L are adjacent. Such a set is called an independent line set.

**Example**

Let us consider the following subsets −

L_{1}= {a,b} L_{2}= {a,b} {c,e} L_{3}= {a,d} {b,c}

In this example, the subsets L2 and L3 are clearly not the adjacent edges in the given graph. They are independent line sets. However L1 is not an independent line set, as for making an independent line set, there should be at least two edges.

## Maximal Independent Line Set

An independent line set is said to be the maximal independent line set of a graph ‘G’ if no other edge of ‘G’ can be added to ‘L’.

**Example**

Let us consider the following subsets −

L_{1}= {a, b} L_{2}= {{b, e}, {c, f}} L_{3}= {{a, e}, {b, c}, {d, f}} L_{4}= {{a, b}, {c, f}}

L_{2} and L_{3} are maximal independent line sets/maximal matching. As for only these two subsets, there is no chance of adding any other edge which is not an adjacent. Hence these two subsets are considered as the maximal independent line sets.

## Maximum Independent Line Set

A maximum independent line set of ‘G’ with maximum number of edges is called a maximum independent line set of ‘G’.

Number of edges in a maximum independent line set of G (β_{1}) = Line independent number of G = Matching number of G

**Example**

Let us consider the following subsets −

L_{1}= {a, b} L_{2}= {{b, e}, {c, f}} L_{3}= {{a, e}, {b, c}, {d, f}} L_{4}= {{a, b}, {c, f}}

L_{3} is the maximum independent line set of G with maximum edges which are not the adjacent edges in graph and is denoted by β1 = 3.

**Note** − For any graph G with no isolated vertex,

α1 + β1 = number of vertices in a graph = |V|

**Example**

Line covering number of K_{n}/C_{n}/w_{n},

Line independent number (Matching number) = β_{1} = [n/2] α_{1} + β_{1} = n.

## Independent Vertex Set

Let ‘G’ = (V, E) be a graph. A subset of ‘V’ is called an independent set of ‘G’ if no two vertices in ‘S’ are adjacent.

**Example**

Consider the following subsets from the above graphs −

S_{1}= {e} S_{2}= {e, f} S_{3}= {a, g, c} S_{4}= {e, d}

Clearly S_{1} is not an independent vertex set, because for getting an independent vertex set, there should be at least two vertices in the from a graph. But here it is not that case. The subsets S_{2}, S_{3}, and S_{4} are the independent vertex sets because there is no vertex that is adjacent to any one vertex from the subsets.

## Maximal Independent Vertex Set

Let ‘G’ be a graph, then an independent vertex set of ‘G’ is said to be maximal if no other vertex of ‘G’ can be added to ‘S’.

**Example**

Consider the following subsets from the above graphs.

S_{1}= {e} S_{2}= {e, f} S_{3}= {a, g, c} S_{4}= {e, d}

S_{2} and S_{3} are maximal independent vertex sets of ‘G’. In S_{1} and S_{4}, we can add other vertices; but in S_{2} and S_{3}, we cannot add any other vertex.

## Maximum Independent Vertex Set

A maximal independent vertex set of ‘G’ with maximum number of vertices is called as the maximum independent vertex set.

**Example**

Consider the following subsets from the above graph −

S_{1}= {e} S_{2}= {e, f} S_{3}= {a, g, c} S_{4}= {e, d}

Only S_{3} is the maximum independent vertex set, as it covers the highest number of vertices. The number of vertices in a maximum independent vertex set of ‘G’ is called the independent vertex number of G (β_{2}).

**Example**

For the complete graph K_{n},

Vertex covering number = α_{2} = n−1

Vertex independent number = β_{2} = 1

You have α_{2} + β_{2} = n

In a complete graph, each vertex is adjacent to its remaining (n − 1) vertices. Therefore, a maximum independent set of K_{n} contains only one vertex.

Therefore, β_{2}=1

and α_{2}=|v| − β_{2} = n-1

**Note** − For any graph ‘G’ = (V, E)

- α
_{2}+ β_{2}= |v| - If ‘S’ is an independent vertex set of ‘G’, then (V – S) is a vertex cover of G.