Difference Between Organs and Organelles



Introduction

All living organisms possess organs and organelles. It is most important structurally, biologically, and functionally. There are several types of organs are present in the human body to do specific functions. Basically, organs are the collection of tissues. In advanced animals, organs are grouped into an organ system. Organelles are present inside the cells and they perform various functions. The nucleus is one of the important organelles present in the cytoplasm. It is present in eukaryotic cells and contains genetic materials in the cells. Ribosomes, Mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, etc are the different types of organelles. In this tutorial, we will learn about organs and organelles in depth.

What is an organ?

There are different types of organs are present in the human body which is a group of tissues. These organs are specific in structures and functions. Organs are classified as vital and non-vital organs. Vital organs are working jointly with non-vital organs so that our body functions properly. Some of the vital organs present in our body are described below −

Brain

  • All the activities in the body are controlled by the brain. It is one of the most complex structures in the human body.

  • CNS constitutes the brain and spinal cord.

  • The brain is covered with three membranes namely dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater.

  • The parts of humans are the forebrain, the midbrain, and the hindbrain.

  • The cerebrum and diencephalon constitute the forebrain. The forebrain is further divided into the dorsal thalamus and ventral hypothalamus.

  • Our intelligence, thinking, consciousness, memory, imagination, reasoning, and willpower are all controlled by the cerebrum.

  • Four rounded bodies which are known as corpora quadrigemina and cerebral aqueduct constitute the mid-brain.

  • The cerebrum, medulla oblongata, and cerebellum formed the hindbrain.

  • The cerebellum is responsible for body balance and all voluntary movements while the pons controls respiration and sleep cycle.

Heart

  • The heart is one of the crucial organs in the circulatory system.

  • The human heart is situated in the thoracic cavity between the lungs.

  • The external protecting covering of the heart is known as the pericardium

  • It is a muscular organ that is divided into the four-chambered namely right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, and left ventricle.

  • Auricles are the upper receiving chambers while ventricles are the lower distributing chambers.

  • The presence of valves in the heart prevents the backflow of blood.

  • Arteries, veins, and capillaries are different types of blood vessels present in the heart that transports blood.

Lungs

  • The lung is a part of the respiratory system
  • A pair of lungs is present in our body
  • Its main function is to help us to breathe.
  • Lungs filter the air that an individual breathes
  • Removes carbon dioxide from the body
  • In the lungs left and right bronchi, the alveoli, and blood vessels are present.

Liver

  • It is an important organ in the metabolic system.
  • It is the largest gland of the body.
  • It assists in the conversion of nutrients into simple substances..
  • It produces bile and cholesterol.
  • Helps in removing toxic substances from the body.

Kidneys

  • The kidney is considered to be the primary excretory organ.

  • The kidney is composed of approximately one million tiny tubular structures. These tubular structures are known as uriniferous tubules or nephrons

  • Its main function is to filter the blood and remove excretory products, especially urea in the form of urine.

  • Apart from these kidneys balance the electrolyte level and body fluids.

  • The kidney filters approximately 200 litres of fluid a day.

Nonvital organs also play an important role in the functioning of the body. The gallbladder, pancreas, intestine, etc are the nonvital organs of the body.

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What are organelles?

Organelles are present inside the cells and they perform various specific function functions. The term organelles are obtained from the organs and refer to different chambers that are present within the cells that perform specific functions. Organelles perform one or more functions in the cell. Organelles are included in both non-membrane-bound and membrane-bound organelles and found in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. The nucleus is one of the important organelles present in the cell. Plastids are present in only autotrophs. Some of the organelles present in the cells are described below

Nucleus

  • The nucleus is the spherical organelle that is located towards the centre of the cytoplasm
  • It contains genetic material and takes part in cell division
  • It is mainly composed of nucleoprotein

Mitochondria

  • It is a membrane-bound cell organelle
  • It is known as the powerhouse of the cell.
  • It generates energy for the cells

Endoplasmic reticulum

  • It is a network of membraneous tubules filled up with fluids.
  • It can be smooth and rough.
  • It takes part in transportation and protein synthesis.

Golgi apparatus

  • It is a membrane-bound cell organelle.
  • It takes part in the transportation and packaging of lipids and proteins to the desired destinations.

Ribosomes

  • It is a non-membrane-bound organelle.
  • It is either enclosed within the endoplasmic reticulum or is freely traced in the cell’s cytoplasm.
  • It takes part in protein synthesis.

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Difference between organ and organelles

Organs Organelles
Part of the body that performs specific functions Part of cells that performs specific functions
Present in multicellular organisms Present in both unicellular and multicellular organisms
Organs are grouped into to form an organ system Organelles contributes to form a cell
Perform specific life function Perform specific cell function
Macroscopic in nature Microscopic in nature
Heart, brain, kidney, lungs are the some of the examples of organs Nucleus, ribosome, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria are some of the examples of organelles.

Conclusion

Organs and organelle are present in all living organisms. Organs are found in multicellular organisms while organelles are present in both unicellular and multicellular organisms. Organs are the collection of tissues while organelles are present inside the cells. Both play a crucial role in the functioning of our bodies.

FAQs

Q1. How to keep our hearts healthy?

Ans. We should eat a balanced diet and exercise regularly to keep our hearts. Apart from this eating green vegetables, fruits, low-fat dairy, and avoiding smoking and drinking keep our hearts healthy. Doing yoga also keep our heart healthy by improving the circulation of blood.

Q2. What is the function of the gallbladder?

Ans.It is one of the parts of the digestive system and its main function is to store bile.

Q3. What is bile?

Ans. Bile is a digestive fluid and helps in the breakdown of fats. It is produced by the liver the largest gland in the body and stored in the gallbladder. Bile constitutes of bilirubin, bile salts, and cholesterol.

Q4. What are plastids?

Ans. Plastids are present only in plant cells. They are membrane-bound cell organelles that contain pigments. Plastids are further subdivided into the chloroplast, chromoplast, and leucoplast. Chloroplast is the site for photosynthesis.

Q5. What is the function of the pancreas?

Ans. The pancreas secretes pancreatic juice that helps in digestion. In addition to this, it produces insulin.


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