C++ Program to Perform Finite State Automaton based Search

This is a C++ program to perform finite state automaton based search. An automaton with a finite number of states is called a Finite Automaton. Here, a text is given text[0 … t-1] and a pattern p[0 ... p-1] is also given. We have to find the pattern in the text and print its all occurrences at the respective indices.


   Function void transitiontable():
   1) put the entries in first row and filled it up. All entries in first row are always 0 except the entry for p[0] character. Always we need to go to state 1.
   for p[0].
   2) Initialize longestprefixsuffix as 0.
   3) for i = 1 to P. (Here P is the length of the pattern)
      a) Copy the entries from the row at index equal to longestprefixsuffix.
      b) Update the entry for p[i] character to i+1.
      c) Update longestprefixsuffix = TF[lps][pat[i]]
      where TT is the 2D array.


#define NO_OF_CHARS 512
using namespace std;
// builds the TF table which represents Finite Automata for a given pattern
void transitiontable(char *p, int P, int TT[][NO_OF_CHARS]) {
   int i, longestprefixsuffix = 0, y;
   // put entries in first row
   for (y =0; y < NO_OF_CHARS; y++)
   TT[0][y] = 0;
   TT[0][p[0]] = 1;
   // put entries in other rows
   for (i = 1; i<= P; i++) { // Copy values from row at index longestprefixsuffix
      for (y = 0; y < NO_OF_CHARS; y++)
      TT[i][y] = TT[longestprefixsuffix][y];
      // Update the entry
      TT[i][p[i]] = i + 1;
      // Update lps for next row to be filled
      if (i < P)
         longestprefixsuffix = TT[longestprefixsuffix][p[i]]; // TT is the 2D array which is being constructed.
//Prints all occurrences of pattern in text
void patternsearch(char *p, char *t) {
   int P = strlen(p);
   int T = strlen(t);
   int TT[P+1][NO_OF_CHARS];
   transitiontable(p, P, TT);
   // process text over FA.
   int i, j=0;
   for (i = 0; i < T; i++) {
      j = TT[j][t[i]];
      if (j == P) {
         cout<<"\n pattern is found at index: "<< i-P+1;
int main() {
   char *text = "AABAA ABBAACCDD CCDDAABAA"; //take the text as input
   char *pattern = "AABAA"; //take the pattern as input
   patternsearch(pattern, text);
   return 0;


pattern is found at index: 0
pattern is found at index: 20

Updated on: 30-Jul-2019


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