Found 794 Articles for Network

What are the services provided by the transport layer?

Updated on 05-May-2021 07:10:20
The services provided by the transport layer are explained below −Address MappingIt means mapping of transport address onto the network address. Whenever a session entity requests to send a transport service data unit (TSDU) to another session entity, it sends its transport service access point address as its identification. The transport entity then determines the network service access point (NSAP) address. This is known as address mapping.Assignment of Network ConnectionThe transport entity assigns a network connection for carrying the transport protocol data units (TPDUs). The transport entity establishes this assigned network connection. In some of the transport protocols, recovery from ... Read More

Describe the Transport Layer in the Computer Network

Updated on 05-May-2021 07:07:06
The transport layer is a fourth layer from the top. The transport layer's central role is to support the broadcasting services precisely to the application procedures running on multiple hosts.It includes the transport service of the session layer entities quality, where quality is determined in the condition of residual error rate, throughput interruption and other quality checking frameworks.It can do splitting, multiplexing, blocking or segmenting on the requirement. It provides end to end connectivity. It can carry out the messages sequencing and exercise end-to-end error control to provide the transport service quality.The transport layer provides its services to session layer ... Read More

What is Dijikstra Algorithm?

Updated on 05-May-2021 11:16:52
The shortest path routing algorithm is an extensively set up non-adaptive routing algorithm that routes a packet dependent on Dijkstra's important shortest path algorithm. In this methodology, packets that appear at a node take one of the shortest paths to a specific destination on the system.The shortcoming of this manner is that it does not consider the modification in the network traffic powerfully. For instance, queuing brings congestion in the middle nodes developing in packets being deferred before arriving at the destination. In this approach, it would be beneficial to advance packets to choose routes that cannot be the shortest ... Read More

What is Distance Vector Routing Algorithm?

Updated on 05-May-2021 07:06:16
The Distance-Vector routing algorithm is known by other names. Bellman-Ford routing algorithm and the Ford-Fulkerson algorithm are generally distributed after the researchers create it (Bellman 1957, and Ford and Fulkerson, 1962).FeaturesFollowing are the features of the distance vector routing are −The routers send the knowledge of the whole autonomous framework.Sharing of data takes place only with the neighbours.Sending of data holds place at constant, ordinary intervals, declared every 30 seconds.In this algorithm, each router evaluates the distance between itself and every achievable destination. This is accomplished by assessing the distance between a router and all of its immediate router neighbours ... Read More

What is a Non-Adaptive Routing Algorithm?

Updated on 05-May-2021 06:57:25
Non-adaptive algorithm or static routing is independent of the current traffic and topology volume. They determine the route to which a datagram is to send off-line. The route is computed and downloaded to the routers when the network is booted. Thus, routing data is manually specified. It provides fixed-route data to each router. If there is no transform in route, it is created manually. This procedure is also called static routing.Random WalkIn this technique, a packet is transmitted by the node to one of its neighbours casually. This algorithm is hugely powerful. When the network is hugely associated, this algorithm ... Read More

What are the functions of Network Layer?

Updated on 05-May-2021 06:56:40
The network layer offers its functions to the transport layer, and for that, it takes services of the data link layer. Its functions are carried out by adding a header to every Network Service data unit (N-SDU). This header is in the form of Protocol Control Information (PCI). Thus a formed Network protocol data unit is transported over the existing data-link connection.The functions of the network layer are as follows −Network ConnectionWhen the Network layer receives a call request from the transport layer, it establishes a network connection across the subnetwork. For this, it makes use of data link connections. ... Read More

What are the Network Layer Design issues?

Updated on 05-May-2021 06:53:50
The network layer design issues contain the services position to the transport layer, routing packets over the subnet, congestion control, and connection of multiple networks together.The design issues of the network layer are as follows −It is the network layer's goals to support logical services to several users linked to multiple networks. Hence, the services supported should be autonomous of the basic technology. In this way, the client's use of the service requires inconvenience with the network's physical execution to send their messages.The transport layer at the host device should not require knowing how the broadcasting connection with the destination ... Read More

What is Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)?

Updated on 05-May-2021 06:53:20
PPP is a protocol that is generally used to provide similar functionality as SLIP. It is the best robust protocol that can transfer different types of packets also along with IP Packets. It can also be needed for dial-up and hired router-router lines. It generally supports the framing techniques to represent frames. It can transfer diagrams across a serial connection to transfer IP traffic over the point-to-point connection as an encapsulation protocol.It can provide the responsibility and executive of IP addresses, asynchronous and bit-oriented synchronous encapsulation, network protocol multiplexing, link configuration, etc. It can support an extensible Link Control Protocol (LCP) ... Read More

Explain the HDLC Operational and Non-Operational Modes

Updated on 05-May-2021 06:52:42
A mode in HDLC is the realigning between two machines contained in a network. The mode describes who controls the link. HDLC determines three types of stations such as primary, secondary, and combined.A primary station is a controlling station on a connection. It controls the secondary stations on the connection and handles data flow and error recovery.A secondary station as existing on a connection where there is a primary station. The secondary station is contained by the primary station and has no explicit authority for maintaining the connection.A combined station is a combination of primary and secondary stations.HDLC Operational ModesThere ... Read More

What is High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC)?

Updated on 05-May-2021 06:51:11
The HDLC process is regulated by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). This is possible for high-speed communication of a high amount of information. The necessary control process cannot support this communication.The HDLC process has been regulated and established on the SDLC. In addition to the characters, bit strings of the acquired length can also be sent through this process. The unit of data communication is known as a frame.HDLC Frame StructureTo provide support for all options in the mode and configuration, HDLC defines three types of frames.Information Frames (IF)The I-Frame is as follows −FlagAddressControl  User Information   FCS Flag        ... Read More