Found 36 Articles for Medical Biotechnology


Bitopi Kaashyap
Updated on 15-Nov-2023 13:44:54


Introduction Did you know besides animals, plants and humans, even bacteria get infected by a virus? These viruses are termed “bacteriophages”, derived from the Greek word “phagein” which means “to prey upon”. Bacteriophages infect the bacteria and grow inside them, as it is well known that viruses need a host to multiply and cannot increase independently without a host. Frederick Twort discovered these obligate intracellular parasites in 1915 and Felix d’Herelle in 1917 independently. They are commonly denoted as “phage”. They are the most abundantly found organisms which could be isolated in any source where bacteria are abundantly found. The ... Read More

Ball and Socket Joint

Bitopi Kaashyap
Updated on 15-Nov-2023 13:54:58


Introduction Movement is essential for every living being, without which a living organism cannot function. Movement varies among different organisms based on its kind and requirements. The human body is composed of 206 bones that give shape to the body, guard the internal organs and enable its movement. Even when the body is resting, it undergoes movements such as breathing, blinking eyes etc. How is the movement possible? It is possible because of the different kinds of joints in the body. Joints A Joint is the point of connection between two or more bones. The joint could be rigid ... Read More

Yeast Artificial Chromosomes (YACs)

Subhashini Pothukuchi
Updated on 15-May-2023 17:45:14


Introduction Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) are a type of genetically engineered DNA molecule that can be used to study and manipulate genes in various organisms. These artificial chromosomes are similar in structure and function to the natural chromosomes found in yeast and other eukaryotic organisms. YACs were first developed in the 1980s as a tool for studying human genetic diseases, but they have since been used to study a wide range of organisms, from bacteria to plants to animals. YACs are especially useful for studying large segments of DNA, including entire genes or even clusters of genes. The Basic ... Read More

What is Z-DNA and What Sequences Can Form it?

Subhashini Pothukuchi
Updated on 15-May-2023 17:41:01


Introduction DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) is a long polymer composed of four types of nucleotides: Adenine (A), Cytosine (C), Guanine (G), and Thymine (T). These nucleotides form base pairs, with A pairing with T, and C pairing with G. DNA molecules are generally double stranded, with the two strands running in opposite directions, and the base pairs stacked in the center. This structure is known as the B-form DNA, and it is the most common form of DNA found in cells. Z-DNA: Structure and Sequence There is another form of DNA known as Z-DNA that differs from B-DNA in ... Read More

What is White Adipose tissue (WAT) and Where Is It Found?

Subhashini Pothukuchi
Updated on 15-May-2023 17:35:25


Introduction White adipose tissue (WAT), also known as white fat, is a type of adipose tissue that plays a crucial role in energy storage and metabolism. It is the most abundant form of adipose tissue in the human body and is found primarily in the subcutaneous layer (under the skin) and around the internal organs such as the kidneys and heart. WAT is composed of adipocytes, which are specialized cells that store energy in the form of triglycerides. Adipocytes make up approximately 20-25% of the total cell population in WAT and are surrounded by a network of blood vessels, immune ... Read More

What is Triple-stranded DNA?

Subhashini Pothukuchi
Updated on 15-May-2023 17:29:26


Introduction DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid is a molecule that carries genetic information in all living organisms. It is composed of four nucleotide bases, namely adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G). These bases pair up in a specific manner, with A pairing with T and C pairing with G. This pairing of nucleotides forms the classic double helix structure of DNA. However, there is also a rare phenomenon where three strands of DNA form a triple helix structure. We will explore the concept of triple-stranded DNA and its potential implications in this current article. Triple-stranded ... Read More

What is the Principle of Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) And How Does It Work?

Subhashini Pothukuchi
Updated on 15-May-2023 17:22:13


Introduction Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) is a technology used for combustion of solid fuels such as coal, biomass, and municipal waste. It is an efficient and environmentally friendly method for generating energy from solid fuels. FBC technology was developed in the 1960s and has since been widely used in power plants, industrial processes, and waste-to-energy plants. In this article, we will discuss the principle of fluidized bed combustion and how it works. Principle of Fluidized Bed Combustion The principle of fluidized bed combustion is based on the formation of a fluidized bed of solid particles, which are suspended in ... Read More

What is the Difference Between Retrotransposons and DNA Transposons?

Subhashini Pothukuchi
Updated on 15-May-2023 17:09:29


Introduction Transposable elements (TEs) are genetic sequences that can move from one location in the genome to another. They are found in almost all organisms and play a crucial role in shaping the genetic diversity of species. There are two main classes of TEs: retrotransposons and DNA transposons. Despite sharing the same general mechanism of transposition, these two classes of TEs differ in their structure, mechanism of transposition, and evolutionary history. DNA Transposons DNA transposons are the simplest type of TEs, consisting of a transposase gene flanked by terminal inverted repeats (TIRs). They typically move by a "cut-and-paste" mechanism, ... Read More

What is Somoclonal Variation?

Subhashini Pothukuchi
Updated on 15-May-2023 16:58:28


Introduction Plant tissue culture is the in vitro cultivation of plant cells, tissues, or organs on artificial nutrient media under sterile conditions. It has become a significant tool in plant science and has played a vital role in the production of improved plant varieties. The ability to produce genetically identical plantlets on a large scale has been of great benefit to the agriculture industry. However, plant tissue culture also has its limitations, and one of them is somaclonal variation. Somaclonal variation is a term used to describe the genetic variation that arises during the process of plant tissue culture. ... Read More

What is Insertional Mutagenesis

Subhashini Pothukuchi
Updated on 15-May-2023 12:04:09


Introduction Insertional mutagenesis is a technique used to identify and analyze genes by randomly disrupting their sequence in the genome of an organism. It is a powerful tool in molecular genetics research, as it allows researchers to identify genes responsible for various physiological processes and diseases. In this article, we will discuss the principles and applications of insertional mutagenesis in detail. Principles of Insertional Mutagenesis The basic principle of insertional mutagenesis involves the introduction of a foreign DNA sequence into the genome of an organism. This can be achieved by using transposons, retroviruses, or other genetic elements that ... Read More