Found 292 Articles for Biotechnology

What is the Difference between Neurobiology and Physiology?

Swetha Roopa
Updated on 18-May-2023 16:34:24


Introduction Neurobiology or Neuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system (the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nervous system), its functions and disorders. It is a multidisciplinary science that combines physiology, anatomy, molecular biology, developmental biology, cytology, psychology, physics, computer science, chemistry, medicine, statistics, and mathematical modeling to understand the fundamental and emergent properties of neurons, glia, and neural circuits. The scope of neuroscience has broadened over time to include different approaches used to study the nervous system at different scales. The techniques used by neuroscientists have expanded enormously, from molecular and cellular studies of individual neurons to imaging ... Read More

What is the Difference between Cloning and Molecular Biology?

Swetha Roopa
Updated on 18-May-2023 16:14:50


Introduction Cloning is the process of producing similar populations of genetically identical individuals that occur in nature when organisms such as bacteria, fungi, insects, or plants reproduce asexually. Examples of such organisms are various trees such as hazel trees, blueberry plants, and the American sweetgum. Cloning in biotechnology refers to processes used to create copies of DNA fragments (molecular cloning), cells (cell cloning), or organisms. The term also refers to the production of multiple copies of a product such as digital media or software. Cloning can be natural or artificial. Examples of cloning that occur naturally are vegetative reproduction in ... Read More

What is the Difference between a Fluorophore and Fluorochrome?

Swetha Roopa
Updated on 18-May-2023 15:37:32


Introduction Fluorophore and fluorochrome refer to the same thing. The difference between fluorochrome and fluorophore is that fluorochrome is any of various fluorescent dyes used to stain biological material before microscopic examination while fluorophore is (biochemistry) a molecule or functional group which is capable of fluorescence. Fluorophores, or fluorochromes, are fluorescent chemical compounds that are capable of absorbing light from a laser and re-emitting the light within a range of wavelengths upon excitation. This property makes them very useful for staining tissues, cells, and other materials in various analytical techniques such as spectroscopy and fluorescent imaging. Fluorescence is described in ... Read More

What is the Demand for Recombinant Insulin Therapeutics in the Global Market?

Swetha Roopa
Updated on 18-May-2023 15:33:58


Introduction Human Recombinant Insulin Market is segmented by product type (short-acting human insulin, intermediate-acting human insulin and premixed human insulin), brand (Insuman, Humulin, Novolin, and other brands), distribution channel (retail pharmacies and online pharmacies), and geography (North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Middle East and Africa, and South America). The Human Recombinant Insulin Market has been growing at a moderate pace with substantial growth rates over the last few years and is estimated that the market will grow significantly in the forecasted period i.e., 2020 to 2027. The factors such as market dynamics, involving the drivers, restraints, opportunities, and challenges through ... Read More

What is Pyrolysis?

Swetha Roopa
Updated on 18-May-2023 15:27:22


Introduction Pyrolysis is the process of chemical degradation that involves heating organic material at high temperatures in the absence of oxygen. It differs from other processes like combustion and hydrolysis which do not involve addition of other reagents such as oxygen (combustion) or water (hydrolysis). Pyrolysis produces solids (char), condensable liquids (tar), and permanent gases. Pyrolysis is considered the first step in the processes of gasification or combustion. The word is derived from the Greek where pyro means "fire", "heat", "fever" and lysis "separating". It is also used in the conversion of natural gas (methane) into hydrogen gas and solid ... Read More

What is Neurobiology?

Swetha Roopa
Updated on 18-May-2023 15:00:47


Introduction Neurobiology is the study of the cells and tissues of the nervous system and how the brain works including the brain, spine, neural circuits, and nerves that work throughout the body. Neurobiology is a subset of both physiology and neuroscience. The full vertebrate nervous system includes both the central and peripheral nervous systems The central nervous system consists of the brain, retina, and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system comprises of the nerves outside the central nervous system that connect it to the rest of the body. Neurobiology can include other scientific disciplines, such as molecular biology and gene ... Read More

What is Fluorochrome?

Swetha Roopa
Updated on 18-May-2023 14:56:09


Introduction Fluorochromes are photoreactive chemicals when absorbing light or energy, electrons are raised from the ground state to an excited state. Electrons return to the ground state by a variety of transitions which may involve the emission of a quantum of light. This effect is termed fluorescence. The emitted light will always be of lower energy, and hence longer wavelength, than the exciting light. As the color of the exciting and emitting light are different, they can be separated from one another by using optical filters. Fluorescent dyes or fluorochromes are commonly used as detection reagents in various applications such ... Read More

What is a Super Integron?

Swetha Roopa
Updated on 18-May-2023 14:40:45


Introduction Super-integron term was first applied in 1998 (but without definition) to the integron with a long cassette array on the small chromosome of Vibrio cholerae. The term has since been used for integrons of various cassette array lengths or for integrons on bacterial chromosomes (plasmids). The use of "super-integron" is now discouraged since its meaning is unclear. In more modern usage, an integron located on a bacterial chromosome is termed a sedentary chromosomal integron, and one associated with transposons or plasmids is called a mobile integron. Two groups of integrons are known: resistance integrons and super-integrons. Gene cassettes in ... Read More

What is a cDNA Library?

Swetha Roopa
Updated on 18-May-2023 14:28:24


Keywords Complementary DNA, transcriptome, mRNA, eukaryotic cells, bacterial cell, genomic DNA. Introduction A cDNA library is a combination of cloned cDNA (complementary DNA) fragments inserted into a collection of host cells, which constitute some portion of the transcriptome of the organism and are stored as a "library". cDNA is produced from fully transcribed mRNA found in the nucleus and therefore contains only the expressed genes of an organism. In eukaryotic cells the mature mRNA is already spliced, hence the cDNA produced lacks introns and can be readily expressed in a bacterial cell. Information in cDNA libraries is a powerful and ... Read More

What are the Side Effects of Integron?

Swetha Roopa
Updated on 18-May-2023 14:24:47


Keywords Bacterial genomes, antibiotic-resistant pathogens, genome evolution, integrons, Gram-negative pathogens, antibiotic resistance. Introduction Integrons are genetic elements that allow efficient capture and expression of exogenous genes. They are widely known for their role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance, particularly among Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Exploration of integron diversity in natural environments has shown that they are more than just a curious feature of antibiotic-resistant pathogens but have a more general and important role in bacterial adaptation and genome evolution. Integrons are versatile gene acquisition systems commonly found in bacterial genomes. They are ancient elements that are a hot spot for ... Read More

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