Agra Fort was a ruined fort called Badalgarh which was renovated by Akbar. Before him, Lodis also built many mosques and palaces inside the fort. The fort covers an area of 380,000 sq. ft. and is built on the banks of river Yamuna.
Agra is one of the most popular cities in India as well as abroad as it consists of many beautiful monuments like Taj Mahal, Agra Fort, Akbar’s tomb, Chini ka Rauza and many others. People from various places in India and abroad come to visit the city.
Agra is a very old city. It is described in the epic of Mahabharata in which its name was Agrevana. History also says that the city was founded by Raja Badal Singh who was a Rajput king. He was the one who built Badalgarh fort which was renovated by Akbar. In the 11th century, Mahmud of Ghazni attacked Agra. At that time Jayapala was the king of Agra.
Sikandar Lodi made Agra his capital in 1506 and after him his son Ibrahim Lodi ruled the city. Ibrahim Lodi was defeated by Babur in 1526 and Agra came into the hands of Mughals.
Babur occupied the throne of Delhi and Agra. He lived in the palace of Ibrahim Lodi that was built in the fort. He built a baoli for storing water. Humayun was coronated as a king here but in 1540, he was defeated by Sher Shah Suri. Mughals again captured the fort in 1555 but Hemu, the chief minister of Adil Shah again won it back. After defeating Hemu, Akbar shifted his capital to Agra. After this, Akbar, Jahangir, Shah Jahan, and Aurangzeb ruled from here. Though Jahangir used to live in Delhi and Kashmir but he visited Agra and lived in Agra Fort. After Aurungzeb, Mughal dynasty declined. During the time of Mughals, the city was named Akbarabad.
The Suris ruled Agra from 1540 to 1555. In 1540, Sher Shah Suri defeated Humayun, the Mughal Emperor. Sher Shah Suri built his tomb at Sasaram in Bihar. The tomb was built between 1540 and 1545. Sher Shah Suri died in 1545 and his son Adil Shah became the king. He was defeated by Humayun in 1555 but Hemu again captured the fort in 1556. Akbar defeated Hemu and recaptured the fort.
Marathas captured the fort in the 18th century and named the city Agra. In 1761, they were defeated by Ahmad Shah Abdali but Mahadji Shinde again captured Agra in 1785. In 1803, the Marathas were defeated by the British.
After defeating the Marathas, Agra came under the control of British. In 1835, British made Agra their capital. During the mutiny of 1857, the British told that the revolt has reached Agra which was the reason of moving some of their troops to Delhi. Agra remained under the British till Independence.