WiMAX - Security Functions
WiMAX systems were designed at the outset with robust security in mind. The standard includes state-of-the-art methods for ensuring user data privacy and preventing unauthorized access with additional protocol optimization for mobility.
Security is handled by a privacy sublayer within the WiMAX MAC. The key aspects of WiMAX security are as follow −
Support for Privacy
User data is encrypted using cryptographic schemes of proven robustness to provide privacy. Both AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) and 3DES (Triple Data Encryption Standard) are supported.
The 128-bit or 256-bit key used for deriving the cipher is generated during the authentication phase and is periodically refreshed for additional protection.
WiMAX provides a flexible means for authenticating subscriber stations and users to prevent unauthorized use. The authentication framework is based on the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) EAP, which supports a variety of credentials, such as username/password, digital certificates, and smart cards.
WiMAX terminal devices come with built-in X.509 digital certificates that contain their public key and MAC address. WiMAX operators can use the certificates for device authentication and use a username/password or smart card authentication on top of it for user authentication.
Flexible Key-management Protocol
The Privacy and Key Management Protocol Version 2 (PKMv2) is used for securely transferring keying material from the base station to the mobile station, periodically re-authorizing and refreshing the keys.
Protection of Control Messages
The integrity of over-the-air control messages is protected by using message digest schemes, such as AES-based CMAC or MD5-based HMAC.
Support for Fast Handover
To support fast handovers, WiMAX allows the MS to use pre-authentication with a particular target BS to facilitate accelerated re-entry.
A three-way handshake scheme is supported to optimize the re-authentication mechanisms for supporting fast handovers, while simultaneously preventing any man-in-the-middle attacks.