PostgreSQL - Syntax

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This chapter provides a list of the PostgreSQL SQL commands, followed by the precise syntax rules for each of these commands. This set of commands is taken from the psql command-line tool. Now that you have Postgres installed, open the psql as:

Program Files > PostgreSQL 9.2 > SQL Shell(psql).

Using psql, you can generate the complete list of commands by using the \help command. For the syntax of a specific command, use the following command:

 postgres-# \help <command_name>

The SQL Statement

An SQL statement is comprised of tokens where each token can represent either a keyword, identifier, quoted identifier, constant, or special character symbol. The table below uses a simple SELECT statement to illustrate a basic, but complete, SQL statement and its components.

SELECTid, nameFROMstates
Token TypeKeywordIdentifiersKeywordIdentifier
DescriptionCommandId and name columnsClauseTable name

PostgreSQL SQL commands

ABORT

Abort the current transaction.

ABORT [ WORK | TRANSACTION ]

ALTER AGGREGATE

Change the definition of an aggregate function.

ALTER AGGREGATE name ( type ) RENAME TO new_name
ALTER AGGREGATE name ( type ) OWNER TO new_owner

ALTER CONVERSION

Change the definition of a conversion.

ALTER CONVERSION name RENAME TO new_name
ALTER CONVERSION name OWNER TO new_owner

ALTER DATABASE

Change a database specific parameter.

ALTER DATABASE name SET parameter { TO | = } { value | DEFAULT }
ALTER DATABASE name RESET parameter
ALTER DATABASE name RENAME TO new_name
ALTER DATABASE name OWNER TO new_owner

ALTER DOMAIN

Change the definition of a domain specific parameter.

ALTER DOMAIN name { SET DEFAULT expression | DROP DEFAULT }
ALTER DOMAIN name { SET | DROP } NOT NULL
ALTER DOMAIN name ADD domain_constraint
ALTER DOMAIN name DROP CONSTRAINT constraint_name [ RESTRICT | CASCADE ]
ALTER DOMAIN name OWNER TO new_owner

ALTER FUNCTION

Change the definition of a function.

ALTER FUNCTION name ( [ type [, ...] ] ) RENAME TO new_name
ALTER FUNCTION name ( [ type [, ...] ] ) OWNER TO new_owner

ALTER GROUP

Change a user group.

ALTER GROUP groupname ADD USER username [, ... ]
ALTER GROUP groupname DROP USER username [, ... ]
ALTER GROUP groupname RENAME TO new_name

ALTER INDEX

Change the definition of an index.

ALTER INDEX name OWNER TO new_owner
ALTER INDEX name SET TABLESPACE indexspace_name
ALTER INDEX name RENAME TO new_name

ALTER LANGUAGE

Change the definition of a procedural language.

ALTER LANGUAGE name RENAME TO new_name

ALTER OPERATOR

Change the definition of an operator.

ALTER OPERATOR name ( { lefttype | NONE } , { righttype | NONE } )
OWNER TO new_owner

ALTER OPERATOR CLASS

Change the definition of an operator class.

ALTER OPERATOR CLASS name USING index_method RENAME TO new_name
ALTER OPERATOR CLASS name USING index_method OWNER TO new_owner

ALTER SCHEMA

Change the definition of a schema.

ALTER SCHEMA name RENAME TO new_name
ALTER SCHEMA name OWNER TO new_owner

ALTER SEQUENCE

Change the definition of a sequence generator.

ALTER SEQUENCE name [ INCREMENT [ BY ] increment ]
[ MINVALUE minvalue | NO MINVALUE ]
[ MAXVALUE maxvalue | NO MAXVALUE ]
[ RESTART [ WITH ] start ] [ CACHE cache ] [ [ NO ] CYCLE ]

ALTER TABLE

Change the definition of a table.

ALTER TABLE [ ONLY ] name [ * ]
action [, ... ]
ALTER TABLE [ ONLY ] name [ * ]
RENAME [ COLUMN ] column TO new_column
ALTER TABLE name
RENAME TO new_name

Where action is one of the following lines:

ADD [ COLUMN ] column_type [ column_constraint [ ... ] ]
DROP [ COLUMN ] column [ RESTRICT | CASCADE ]
ALTER [ COLUMN ] column TYPE type [ USING expression ]
ALTER [ COLUMN ] column SET DEFAULT expression
ALTER [ COLUMN ] column DROP DEFAULT
ALTER [ COLUMN ] column { SET | DROP } NOT NULL
ALTER [ COLUMN ] column SET STATISTICS integer
ALTER [ COLUMN ] column SET STORAGE { PLAIN | EXTERNAL | EXTENDED | MAIN }
ADD table_constraint
DROP CONSTRAINT constraint_name [ RESTRICT | CASCADE ]
CLUSTER ON index_name
SET WITHOUT CLUSTER
SET WITHOUT OIDS
OWNER TO new_owner
SET TABLESPACE tablespace_name

ALTER TABLESPACE

Change the definition of a tablespace.

ALTER TABLESPACE name RENAME TO new_name
ALTER TABLESPACE name OWNER TO new_owner

ALTER TRIGGER

Change the definition of a trigger.

ALTER TRIGGER name ON table RENAME TO new_name

ALTER TYPE

Change the definition of a type.

ALTER TYPE name OWNER TO new_owner

ALTER USER

Change a database user account.

ALTER USER name [ [ WITH ] option [ ... ] ]
ALTER USER name RENAME TO new_name
ALTER USER name SET parameter { TO | = } { value | DEFAULT }
ALTER USER name RESET parameter

Where option can be:

[ ENCRYPTED | UNENCRYPTED ] PASSWORD 'password'
| CREATEDB | NOCREATEDB
| CREATEUSER | NOCREATEUSER
| VALID UNTIL 'abstime'

ANALYZE

Collect statistics about a database.

ANALYZE [ VERBOSE ] [ table [ (column [, ...] ) ] ]

BEGIN

Start a transaction block.

BEGIN [ WORK | TRANSACTION ] [ transaction_mode [, ...] ]

Where transaction_mode is one of:

ISOLATION LEVEL { SERIALIZABLE | REPEATABLE READ | READ COMMITTED
| READ UNCOMMITTED }
READ WRITE | READ ONLY

CHECKPOINT

Force a transaction log checkpoint.

CHECKPOINT

CLOSE

Close a cursor.

CLOSE name

CLUSTER

Cluster a table according to an index.

CLUSTER index_name ON table_name
CLUSTER table_name
CLUSTER

COMMENT

Define or change the comment of an object.

COMMENT ON
{
TABLE object_name |
COLUMN table_name.column_name |
AGGREGATE agg_name (agg_type) |
CAST (source_type AS target_type) |
CONSTRAINT constraint_name ON table_name |
CONVERSION object_name |
DATABASE object_name |
DOMAIN object_name |
FUNCTION func_name (arg1_type, arg2_type, ...) |
INDEX object_name |
LARGE OBJECT large_object_oid |
OPERATOR op (left_operand_type, right_operand_type) |
OPERATOR CLASS object_name USING index_method |
[ PROCEDURAL ] LANGUAGE object_name |
RULE rule_name ON table_name |
SCHEMA object_name |
SEQUENCE object_name |
TRIGGER trigger_name ON table_name |
TYPE object_name |
VIEW object_name
} IS 'text'

COMMIT

Commit the current transaction.

COMMIT [ WORK | TRANSACTION ]

COPY

Copy data between a file and a table.

COPY table_name [ ( column [, ...] ) ]
FROM { 'filename' | STDIN }
[ [ WITH ]
[ BINARY ]
[ OIDS ]
[ DELIMITER [ AS ] 'delimiter' ]
[ NULL [ AS ] 'null string' ]
[ CSV [ QUOTE [ AS ] 'quote' ]
[ ESCAPE [ AS ] 'escape' ]
[ FORCE NOT NULL column [, ...] ]
COPY table_name [ ( column [, ...] ) ]
TO { 'filename' | STDOUT }
[ [ WITH ]
[ BINARY ]
[ OIDS ]
[ DELIMITER [ AS ] 'delimiter' ]
[ NULL [ AS ] 'null string' ]
[ CSV [ QUOTE [ AS ] 'quote' ]
[ ESCAPE [ AS ] 'escape' ]
[ FORCE QUOTE column [, ...] ]

CREATE AGGREGATE

Define a new aggregate function.

CREATE AGGREGATE name (
BASETYPE = input_data_type,
SFUNC = sfunc,
STYPE = state_data_type
[ , FINALFUNC = ffunc ]
[ , INITCOND = initial_condition ]
)

CREATE CAST

Define a new cast.

CREATE CAST (source_type AS target_type)
WITH FUNCTION func_name (arg_types)
[ AS ASSIGNMENT | AS IMPLICIT ]
CREATE CAST (source_type AS target_type)
WITHOUT FUNCTION
[ AS ASSIGNMENT | AS IMPLICIT ]

CREATE CONSTRAINT TRIGGER

Define a new constraint trigger.

CREATE CONSTRAINT TRIGGER name
AFTER events ON
table_name constraint attributes
FOR EACH ROW EXECUTE PROCEDURE func_name ( args )

CREATE CONVERSION

Define a new conversion.

CREATE [DEFAULT] CONVERSION name
FOR source_encoding TO dest_encoding FROM func_name

CREATE DATABASE

Create a new database.

CREATE DATABASE name
[ [ WITH ] [ OWNER [=] db_owner ]
[ TEMPLATE [=] template ]
[ ENCODING [=] encoding ]
[ TABLESPACE [=] tablespace ] ]

CREATE DOMAIN

Define a new domain.

CREATE DOMAIN name [AS] data_type
[ DEFAULT expression ]
[ constraint [ ... ] ]

Where constraint is:

[ CONSTRAINT constraint_name ]
{ NOT NULL | NULL | CHECK (expression) }

CREATE FUNCTION

Define a new function.

CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] FUNCTION name ( [ [ arg_name ] arg_type [, ...] ] )
RETURNS ret_type
{ LANGUAGE lang_name
| IMMUTABLE | STABLE | VOLATILE
| CALLED ON NULL INPUT | RETURNS NULL ON NULL INPUT | STRICT
| [ EXTERNAL ] SECURITY INVOKER | [ EXTERNAL ] SECURITY DEFINER
| AS 'definition'
| AS 'obj_file', 'link_symbol'
} ...
[ WITH ( attribute [, ...] ) ]

CREATE GROUP

Define a new user group.

CREATE GROUP name [ [ WITH ] option [ ... ] ]
Where option can be:
SYSID gid
| USER username [, ...]

CREATE INDEX

Define a new index.

CREATE [ UNIQUE ] INDEX name ON table [ USING method ]
( { column | ( expression ) } [ opclass ] [, ...] )
[ TABLESPACE tablespace ]
[ WHERE predicate ]

CREATE LANGUAGE

Define a new procedural language.

CREATE [ TRUSTED ] [ PROCEDURAL ] LANGUAGE name
HANDLER call_handler [ VALIDATOR val_function ]

CREATE OPERATOR

Define a new operator.

CREATE OPERATOR name (
PROCEDURE = func_name
[, LEFTARG = left_type ] [, RIGHTARG = right_type ]
[, COMMUTATOR = com_op ] [, NEGATOR = neg_op ]
[, RESTRICT = res_proc ] [, JOIN = join_proc ]
[, HASHES ] [, MERGES ]
[, SORT1 = left_sort_op ] [, SORT2 = right_sort_op ]
[, LTCMP = less_than_op ] [, GTCMP = greater_than_op ]
)

CREATE OPERATOR CLASS

Define a new operator class.

CREATE OPERATOR CLASS name [ DEFAULT ] FOR TYPE data_type
USING index_method AS
{ OPERATOR strategy_number operator_name [ ( op_type, op_type ) ] [ RECHECK ]
| FUNCTION support_number func_name ( argument_type [, ...] )
| STORAGE storage_type
} [, ... ]

CREATE RULE

Define a new rewrite rule.

CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] RULE name AS ON event
TO table [ WHERE condition ]
DO [ ALSO | INSTEAD ] { NOTHING | command | ( command ; command ... ) }

CREATE SCHEMA

Define a new schema.

CREATE SCHEMA schema_name
[ AUTHORIZATION username ] [ schema_element [ ... ] ]
CREATE SCHEMA AUTHORIZATION username
[ schema_element [ ... ] ]

CREATE SEQUENCE

Define a new sequence generator.

CREATE [ TEMPORARY | TEMP ] SEQUENCE name
[ INCREMENT [ BY ] increment ]
[ MINVALUE minvalue | NO MINVALUE ]
[ MAXVALUE maxvalue | NO MAXVALUE ]
[ START [ WITH ] start ] [ CACHE cache ] [ [ NO ] CYCLE ]

CREATE TABLE

Define a new table.

CREATE [ [ GLOBAL | LOCAL ] { TEMPORARY | TEMP } ] TABLE table_name (
{ column_name data_type [ DEFAULT default_expr ] [ column_constraint [ ... ] ]
| table_constraint
| LIKE parent_table [ { INCLUDING | EXCLUDING } DEFAULTS ] } [, ... ]
)
[ INHERITS ( parent_table [, ... ] ) ]
[ WITH OIDS | WITHOUT OIDS ]
[ ON COMMIT { PRESERVE ROWS | DELETE ROWS | DROP } ]
[ TABLESPACE tablespace ]
Where column_constraint is:
[ CONSTRAINT constraint_name ]
{ NOT NULL |
NULL |
UNIQUE [ USING INDEX TABLESPACE tablespace ] |
PRIMARY KEY [ USING INDEX TABLESPACE tablespace ] |
CHECK (expression) |
REFERENCES ref_table [ ( ref_column ) ]
[ MATCH FULL | MATCH PARTIAL | MATCH SIMPLE ]
[ ON DELETE action ] [ ON UPDATE action ] }
[ DEFERRABLE | NOT DEFERRABLE ] [ INITIALLY DEFERRED | INITIALLY IMMEDIATE ]

And table_constraint is:

[ CONSTRAINT constraint_name ]
{ UNIQUE ( column_name [, ... ] ) [ USING INDEX TABLESPACE tablespace ] |
PRIMARY KEY ( column_name [, ... ] ) [ USING INDEX TABLESPACE tablespace ] |
CHECK ( expression ) |
FOREIGN KEY ( column_name [, ... ] )
REFERENCES ref_table [ ( ref_column [, ... ] ) ]
[ MATCH FULL | MATCH PARTIAL | MATCH SIMPLE ]
[ ON DELETE action ] [ ON UPDATE action ] }
[ DEFERRABLE | NOT DEFERRABLE ] [ INITIALLY DEFERRED | INITIALLY IMMEDIATE ]

CREATE TABLE AS

Define a new table from the results of a query.

CREATE [ [ GLOBAL | LOCAL ] { TEMPORARY | TEMP } ] TABLE table_name
[ (column_name [, ...] ) ] [ [ WITH | WITHOUT ] OIDS ]
AS query

CREATE TABLESPACE

Define a new tablespace.

CREATE TABLESPACE tablespace_name [ OWNER username ] LOCATION 'directory'

CREATE TRIGGER

Define a new trigger.

CREATE TRIGGER name { BEFORE | AFTER } { event [ OR ... ] }
ON table [ FOR [ EACH ] { ROW | STATEMENT } ]
EXECUTE PROCEDURE func_name ( arguments )

CREATE TYPE

Define a new data type.

CREATE TYPE name AS
( attribute_name data_type [, ... ] )
CREATE TYPE name (
INPUT = input_function,
OUTPUT = output_function
[ , RECEIVE = receive_function ]
[ , SEND = send_function ]
[ , ANALYZE = analyze_function ]
[ , INTERNALLENGTH = { internal_length | VARIABLE } ]
[ , PASSEDBYVALUE ]
[ , ALIGNMENT = alignment ]
[ , STORAGE = storage ]
[ , DEFAULT = default ]
[ , ELEMENT = element ]
[ , DELIMITER = delimiter ]
)

CREATE USER

Define a new database user account.

CREATE USER name [ [ WITH ] option [ ... ] ]

Where option can be:

SYSID uid
| [ ENCRYPTED | UNENCRYPTED ] PASSWORD 'password'
| CREATEDB | NOCREATEDB
| CREATEUSER | NOCREATEUSER
| IN GROUP group_name [, ...]
| VALID UNTIL 'abs_time'

CREATE VIEW

Define a new view.

CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] VIEW name [ ( column_name [, ...] ) ] AS query

DEALLOCATE

Deallocate a prepared statement.

DEALLOCATE [ PREPARE ] plan_name

DECLARE

Define a cursor.

DECLARE name [ BINARY ] [ INSENSITIVE ] [ [ NO ] SCROLL ]
CURSOR [ { WITH | WITHOUT } HOLD ] FOR query
[ FOR { READ ONLY | UPDATE [ OF column [, ...] ] } ]

DELETE

Delete rows of a table.

DELETE FROM [ ONLY ] table [ WHERE condition ]

DROP AGGREGATE

Remove an aggregate function.

DROP AGGREGATE name ( type ) [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP CAST

Remove a cast.

DROP CAST (source_type AS target_type) [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP CONVERSION

Remove a conversion.

DROP CONVERSION name [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP DATABASE

Remove a database.

DROP DATABASE name

DROP DOMAIN

Remove a domain.

DROP DOMAIN name [, ...] [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP FUNCTION

Remove a function.

DROP FUNCTION name ( [ type [, ...] ] ) [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP GROUP

Remove a user group.

DROP GROUP name

DROP INDEX

Remove an index.

DROP INDEX name [, ...] [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP LANGUAGE

Remove a procedural language.

DROP [ PROCEDURAL ] LANGUAGE name [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP OPERATOR

Remove an operator.

DROP OPERATOR name ( { left_type | NONE } , { right_type | NONE } )
[ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP OPERATOR CLASS

Remove an operator class.

DROP OPERATOR CLASS name USING index_method [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP RULE

Remove a rewrite rule.

DROP RULE name ON relation [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP SCHEMA

Remove a schema.

DROP SCHEMA name [, ...] [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP SEQUENCE

Remove a sequence.

DROP SEQUENCE name [, ...] [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP TABLE

Remove a table.

DROP TABLE name [, ...] [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP TABLESPACE

Remove a tablespace.

DROP TABLESPACE tablespace_name

DROP TRIGGER

Remove a trigger.

DROP TRIGGER name ON table [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP TYPE

Remove a data type.

DROP TYPE name [, ...] [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP USER

Remove a database user account.

DROP USER name

DROP VIEW

Remove a view.

DROP VIEW name [, ...] [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

END

Commit the current transaction.

END [ WORK | TRANSACTION ]

EXECUTE

Execute a prepared statement.

EXECUTE plan_name [ (parameter [, ...] ) ]

EXPLAIN

Show the execution plan of a statement.

EXPLAIN [ ANALYZE ] [ VERBOSE ] statement

FETCH

Retrieve rows from a query using a cursor.

FETCH [ direction { FROM | IN } ] cursor_name

Where direction can be empty or one of:

NEXT
PRIOR
FIRST
LAST
ABSOLUTE count
RELATIVE count
count
ALL
FORWARD
FORWARD count
FORWARD ALL
BACKWARD
BACKWARD count
BACKWARD ALL

GRANT

Define access privileges.

GRANT { { SELECT | INSERT | UPDATE | DELETE | RULE | REFERENCES | TRIGGER }
[,...] | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON [ TABLE ] table_name [, ...]
TO { username | GROUP group_name | PUBLIC } [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]

GRANT { { CREATE | TEMPORARY | TEMP } [,...] | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON DATABASE db_name [, ...]
TO { username | GROUP group_name | PUBLIC } [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]

GRANT { CREATE | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON TABLESPACE tablespace_name [, ...]
TO { username | GROUP group_name | PUBLIC } [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]

GRANT { EXECUTE | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON FUNCTION func_name ([type, ...]) [, ...]
TO { username | GROUP group_name | PUBLIC } [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]

GRANT { USAGE | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON LANGUAGE lang_name [, ...]
TO { username | GROUP group_name | PUBLIC } [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]

GRANT { { CREATE | USAGE } [,...] | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON SCHEMA schema_name [, ...]
TO { username | GROUP group_name | PUBLIC } [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]

INSERT

Create new rows in a table.

INSERT INTO table [ ( column [, ...] ) ]
{ DEFAULT VALUES | VALUES ( { expression | DEFAULT } [, ...] ) | query }

LISTEN

Listen for a notification.

LISTEN name

LOAD

Load or reload a shared library file.

LOAD 'filename'

LOCK

Lock a table.

LOCK [ TABLE ] name [, ...] [ IN lock_mode MODE ] [ NOWAIT ]

Where lock_mode is one of:

ACCESS SHARE | ROW SHARE | ROW EXCLUSIVE | SHARE UPDATE EXCLUSIVE
| SHARE | SHARE ROW EXCLUSIVE | EXCLUSIVE | ACCESS EXCLUSIVE

MOVE

Position a cursor.

MOVE [ direction { FROM | IN } ] cursor_name

NOTIFY

Generate a notification.

NOTIFY name

PREPARE

Prepare a statement for execution.

PREPARE plan_name [ (data_type [, ...] ) ] AS statement

REINDEX

Rebuild indexes.

REINDEX { DATABASE | TABLE | INDEX } name [ FORCE ]

RELEASE SAVEPOINT

Destroy a previously defined savepoint.

RELEASE [ SAVEPOINT ] savepoint_name

RESET

Restore the value of a runtime parameter to the default value.

RESET name
RESET ALL

REVOKE

Remove access privileges.

REVOKE [ GRANT OPTION FOR ]
{ { SELECT | INSERT | UPDATE | DELETE | RULE | REFERENCES | TRIGGER }
[,...] | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON [ TABLE ] table_name [, ...]
FROM { username | GROUP group_name | PUBLIC } [, ...]
[ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

REVOKE [ GRANT OPTION FOR ]
{ { CREATE | TEMPORARY | TEMP } [,...] | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON DATABASE db_name [, ...]
FROM { username | GROUP group_name | PUBLIC } [, ...]
[ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

REVOKE [ GRANT OPTION FOR ]
{ CREATE | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON TABLESPACE tablespace_name [, ...]
FROM { username | GROUP group_name | PUBLIC } [, ...]
[ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

REVOKE [ GRANT OPTION FOR ]
{ EXECUTE | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON FUNCTION func_name ([type, ...]) [, ...]
FROM { username | GROUP group_name | PUBLIC } [, ...]
[ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

REVOKE [ GRANT OPTION FOR ]
{ USAGE | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON LANGUAGE lang_name [, ...]
FROM { username | GROUP group_name | PUBLIC } [, ...]
[ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

REVOKE [ GRANT OPTION FOR ]
{ { CREATE | USAGE } [,...] | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON SCHEMA schema_name [, ...]
FROM { username | GROUP group_name | PUBLIC } [, ...]
[ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

ROLLBACK

Abort the current transaction.

ROLLBACK [ WORK | TRANSACTION ]

ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT

Roll back to a savepoint.

ROLLBACK [ WORK | TRANSACTION ] TO [ SAVEPOINT ] savepoint_name

SAVEPOINT

Define a new savepoint within the current transaction.

SAVEPOINT savepoint_name

SELECT

Retrieve rows from a table or view.

SELECT [ ALL | DISTINCT [ ON ( expression [, ...] ) ] ]
* | expression [ AS output_name ] [, ...]
[ FROM from_item [, ...] ]
[ WHERE condition ]
[ GROUP BY expression [, ...] ]
[ HAVING condition [, ...] ]
[ { UNION | INTERSECT | EXCEPT } [ ALL ] select ]
[ ORDER BY expression [ ASC | DESC | USING operator ] [, ...] ]
[ LIMIT { count | ALL } ]
[ OFFSET start ]
[ FOR UPDATE [ OF table_name [, ...] ] ]
Where from_item can be one of:
[ ONLY ] table_name [ * ] [ [ AS ] alias [ ( column_alias [, ...] ) ] ]
( select ) [ AS ] alias [ ( column_alias [, ...] ) ]
function_name ( [ argument [, ...] ] )
[ AS ] alias [ ( column_alias [, ...] | column_definition [, ...] ) ]
function_name ( [ argument [, ...] ] ) AS ( column_definition [, ...] )
from_item [ NATURAL ] join_type from_item
[ ON join_condition | USING ( join_column [, ...] ) ]

SELECT INTO

Define a new table from the results of a query.

SELECT [ ALL | DISTINCT [ ON ( expression [, ...] ) ] ]
* | expression [ AS output_name ] [, ...]
INTO [ TEMPORARY | TEMP ] [ TABLE ] new_table
[ FROM from_item [, ...] ]
[ WHERE condition ]
[ GROUP BY expression [, ...] ]
[ HAVING condition [, ...] ]
[ { UNION | INTERSECT | EXCEPT } [ ALL ] select ]
[ ORDER BY expression [ ASC | DESC | USING operator ] [, ...] ]
[ LIMIT { count | ALL } ]
[ OFFSET start ]
[ FOR UPDATE [ OF table_name [, ...] ] ]

SET

Change a runtime parameter.

SET [ SESSION | LOCAL ] name { TO | = } { value | 'value' | DEFAULT }
SET [ SESSION | LOCAL ] TIME ZONE { time_zone | LOCAL | DEFAULT }

SET CONSTRAINTS

Set constraint checking modes for the current transaction.

SET CONSTRAINTS { ALL | name [, ...] } { DEFERRED | IMMEDIATE }

SET SESSION AUTHORIZATION

Set the session user identifier and the current user identifier of the current session.

SET [ SESSION | LOCAL ] SESSION AUTHORIZATION username
SET [ SESSION | LOCAL ] SESSION AUTHORIZATION DEFAULT
RESET SESSION AUTHORIZATION

SET TRANSACTION

Set the characteristics of the current transaction.

SET TRANSACTION transaction_mode [, ...]
SET SESSION CHARACTERISTICS AS TRANSACTION transaction_mode [, ...]

Where transaction_mode is one of:

ISOLATION LEVEL { SERIALIZABLE | REPEATABLE READ | READ COMMITTED
| READ UNCOMMITTED }
READ WRITE | READ ONLY

SHOW

Show the value of a runtime parameter.

SHOW name
SHOW ALL

START TRANSACTION

Start a transaction block.

START TRANSACTION [ transaction_mode [, ...] ]

Where transaction_mode is one of:

ISOLATION LEVEL { SERIALIZABLE | REPEATABLE READ | READ COMMITTED
| READ UNCOMMITTED }
READ WRITE | READ ONLY

TRUNCATE

Empty a table.

TRUNCATE [ TABLE ] name

UNLISTEN

Stop listening for a notification.

UNLISTEN { name | * }

UPDATE

Update rows of a table.

UPDATE [ ONLY ] table SET column = { expression | DEFAULT } [, ...]
[ FROM from_list ]
[ WHERE condition ]

VACUUM

Garbage-collect and optionally analyze a database.

VACUUM [ FULL ] [ FREEZE ] [ VERBOSE ] [ table ]
VACUUM [ FULL ] [ FREEZE ] [ VERBOSE ] ANALYZE [ table [ (column [, ...] ) ] ]


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