PostgreSQL - DATE/TIME Functions and Operators


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We had discussed about the Date/Time data types in the chapter Data Types. Now, let us see the Date/Time operators and Functions.

The following table lists the behaviors of the basic arithmetic operators −

Operator Example Result
+ date '2001-09-28' + integer '7' date '2001-10-05'
+ date '2001-09-28' + interval '1 hour' timestamp '2001-09-28 01:00:00'
+ date '2001-09-28' + time '03:00' timestamp '2001-09-28 03:00:00'
+ interval '1 day' + interval '1 hour' interval '1 day 01:00:00'
+ timestamp '2001-09-28 01:00' + interval '23 hours' timestamp '2001-09-29 00:00:00'
+ time '01:00' + interval '3 hours' time '04:00:00'
- - interval '23 hours' interval '-23:00:00'
- date '2001-10-01' - date '2001-09-28' integer '3' (days)
- date '2001-10-01' - integer '7' date '2001-09-24'
- date '2001-09-28' - interval '1 hour' timestamp '2001-09-27 23:00:00'
- time '05:00' - time '03:00' interval '02:00:00'
- time '05:00' - interval '2 hours' time '03:00:00'
- timestamp '2001-09-28 23:00' - interval '23 hours' timestamp '2001-09-28 00:00:00'
- interval '1 day' - interval '1 hour' interval '1 day -01:00:00'
- timestamp '2001-09-29 03:00' - timestamp '2001-09-27 12:00' interval '1 day 15:00:00'
* 900 * interval '1 second' interval '00:15:00'
* 21 * interval '1 day' interval '21 days'
* double precision '3.5' * interval '1 hour' interval '03:30:00'
/ interval '1 hour' / double precision '1.5' interval '00:40:00'

The following is the list of all important Date and Time related functions available.

S. No. Function & Description
1 AGE()

Subtract arguments

2 CURRENT DATE/TIME()

Current date and time

3 DATE_PART()

Get subfield (equivalent to extract)

4 EXTRACT()

Get subfield

5 ISFINITE()

Test for finite date, time and interval (not +/-infinity)

6 JUSTIFY

Adjust interval

AGE(timestamp, timestamp), AGE(timestamp)

S. No. Function & Description
1

AGE(timestamp, timestamp)

When invoked with the TIMESTAMP form of the second argument, AGE() subtract arguments, producing a "symbolic" result that uses years and months and is of type INTERVAL.

2

AGE(timestamp)

When invoked with only the TIMESTAMP as argument, AGE() subtracts from the current_date (at midnight).

Example of the function AGE(timestamp, timestamp) is −

testdb=# SELECT AGE(timestamp '2001-04-10', timestamp '1957-06-13');

The above given PostgreSQL statement will produce the following result −

           age
-------------------------
 43 years 9 mons 27 days

Example of the function AGE(timestamp) is −

testdb=# select age(timestamp '1957-06-13');

The above given PostgreSQL statement will produce the following result −

           age
--------------------------
 55 years 10 mons 22 days

CURRENT DATE/TIME()

PostgreSQL provides a number of functions that return values related to the current date and time. Following are some functions −

S. No. Function & Description
1

CURRENT_DATE

Delivers current date.

2

CURRENT_TIME

Delivers values with time zone.

3

CURRENT_TIMESTAMP

Delivers values with time zone.

4

CURRENT_TIME(precision)

Optionally takes a precision parameter, which causes the result to be rounded to that many fractional digits in the seconds field.

5

CURRENT_TIMESTAMP(precision)

Optionally takes a precision parameter, which causes the result to be rounded to that many fractional digits in the seconds field.

6

LOCALTIME

Delivers values without time zone.

7

LOCALTIMESTAMP

Delivers values without time zone.

8

LOCALTIME(precision)

Optionally takes a precision parameter, which causes the result to be rounded to that many fractional digits in the seconds field.

9

LOCALTIMESTAMP(precision)

Optionally takes a precision parameter, which causes the result to be rounded to that many fractional digits in the seconds field.

Examples using the functions from the table above −

testdb=# SELECT CURRENT_TIME;
       timetz
--------------------
 08:01:34.656+05:30
(1 row)


testdb=# SELECT CURRENT_DATE;
    date
------------
 2013-05-05
(1 row)


testdb=# SELECT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP;
              now
-------------------------------
 2013-05-05 08:01:45.375+05:30
(1 row)


testdb=# SELECT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP(2);
         timestamptz
------------------------------
 2013-05-05 08:01:50.89+05:30
(1 row)


testdb=# SELECT LOCALTIMESTAMP;
       timestamp
------------------------
 2013-05-05 08:01:55.75
(1 row)

PostgreSQL also provides functions that return the start time of the current statement, as well as the actual current time at the instant the function is called. These functions are −

S. No. Function & Description
1

transaction_timestamp()

It is equivalent to CURRENT_TIMESTAMP, but is named to clearly reflect what it returns.

2

statement_timestamp()

It returns the start time of the current statement.

3

clock_timestamp()

It returns the actual current time, and therefore its value changes even within a single SQL command.

4

timeofday()

It returns the actual current time, but as a formatted text string rather than a timestamp with time zone value.

5

now()

It is a traditional PostgreSQL equivalent to transaction_timestamp().

DATE_PART(text, timestamp), DATE_PART(text, interval), DATE_TRUNC(text, timestamp)

S. No. Function & Description
1

DATE_PART('field', source)

These functions get the subfields. The field parameter needs to be a string value, not a name.

The valid field names are: century, day, decade, dow, doy, epoch, hour, isodow, isoyear, microseconds, millennium, milliseconds, minute, month, quarter, second, timezone, timezone_hour, timezone_minute, week, year.

2

DATE_TRUNC('field', source)

This function is conceptually similar to the trunc function for numbers. source is a value expression of type timestamp or interval. field selects to which precision to truncate the input value. The return value is of type timestamp or interval.

The valid values for field are : microseconds, milliseconds, second, minute, hour, day, week, month, quarter, year, decade, century, millennium

The following are examples for DATE_PART('field', source) functions −

testdb=# SELECT date_part('day', TIMESTAMP '2001-02-16 20:38:40');
 date_part
-----------
        16
(1 row)


testdb=# SELECT date_part('hour', INTERVAL '4 hours 3 minutes');
 date_part
-----------
         4
(1 row)

The following are examples for DATE_TRUNC('field', source) functions −

testdb=# SELECT date_trunc('hour', TIMESTAMP '2001-02-16 20:38:40');
     date_trunc
---------------------
 2001-02-16 20:00:00
(1 row)


testdb=# SELECT date_trunc('year', TIMESTAMP '2001-02-16 20:38:40');
     date_trunc
---------------------
 2001-01-01 00:00:00
(1 row)

EXTRACT(field from timestamp), EXTRACT(field from interval)

The EXTRACT(field FROM source) function retrieves subfields such as year or hour from date/time values. The source must be a value expression of type timestamp, time, or interval. The field is an identifier or string that selects what field to extract from the source value. The EXTRACT function returns values of type double precision.

The following are valid field names (similar to DATE_PART function field names): century, day, decade, dow, doy, epoch, hour, isodow, isoyear, microseconds, millennium, milliseconds, minute, month, quarter, second, timezone, timezone_hour, timezone_minute, week, year.

The following are examples of EXTRACT('field', source) functions −

testdb=# SELECT EXTRACT(CENTURY FROM TIMESTAMP '2000-12-16 12:21:13');
 date_part
-----------
        20
(1 row)


testdb=# SELECT EXTRACT(DAY FROM TIMESTAMP '2001-02-16 20:38:40');
 date_part
-----------
        16
(1 row)

ISFINITE(date), ISFINITE(timestamp), ISFINITE(interval)

S. No. Function & Description
1

ISFINITE(date)

Tests for finite date.

2

ISFINITE(timestamp)

Tests for finite time stamp.

3

ISFINITE(interval)

Tests for finite interval.

The following are the examples of the ISFINITE() functions −

testdb=# SELECT isfinite(date '2001-02-16');
 isfinite
----------
 t
(1 row)


testdb=# SELECT isfinite(timestamp '2001-02-16 21:28:30');
 isfinite
----------
 t
(1 row)


testdb=# SELECT isfinite(interval '4 hours');
 isfinite
----------
 t
(1 row)

JUSTIFY_DAYS(interval), JUSTIFY_HOURS(interval), JUSTIFY_INTERVAL(interval)

S. No. Function & Description
1

JUSTIFY_DAYS(interval)

Adjusts interval so 30-day time periods are represented as months. Return the interval type

2

JUSTIFY_HOURS(interval)

Adjusts interval so 24-hour time periods are represented as days. Return the interval type

3

JUSTIFY_INTERVAL(interval)

Adjusts interval using JUSTIFY_DAYS and JUSTIFY_HOURS, with additional sign adjustments. Return the interval type

The following are the examples for the ISFINITE() functions −

testdb=# SELECT justify_days(interval '35 days');
 justify_days
--------------
 1 mon 5 days
(1 row)


testdb=# SELECT justify_hours(interval '27 hours');
 justify_hours
----------------
 1 day 03:00:00
(1 row)


testdb=# SELECT justify_interval(interval '1 mon -1 hour');
 justify_interval
------------------
 29 days 23:00:00
(1 row)


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