What is Rosacea: Symptoms Causes Diagnosis Treatment, & Prevention?

Rosacea is a chronic skin disease that causes redness, pimples, and bumps on the face. It is also known as acne rosacea. Rosacea, as a survey, affects more than 16 million people in the United States alone and is most common among those over 30 years old and fair-skinned with light hair or blond hair color. In this post, we will discuss the symptoms, causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of rosacea.

What Is Rosacea?

Rosacea is a condition that affects the skin on the face. It causes redness and pimples on your face. It most commonly occurs over the cheeks and nose, but it can also affect other areas, such as the forehead, chin, and neck. The pimples caused by rosacea are similar to those caused by acne, except that with rosacea, these pimples recur over time, even with treatment. These bumps are called papules or pustules. Rosacea is also known as acne rosacea or the pimple rosacea. It is a condition that affects millions of people globally and can occur in men and women.

Cause of Rosacea

Many conditions develop rosacea. The exact causes are still unknown. It is commonly believed that rosacea results from inflammation of the oil glands on your skin's surface (sebaceous glands). To fight disease, these oil glands get clogged with sebum, a fatty substance similar to sweat. This blockage leads to excessive sebum production, causing the skin to become too oily and sometimes too dry. The result is that it starts to overproduce keratinocytes, which are cells responsible for the formation of skin papillae.

They usually appear in clusters, and they are usually red or brown in color and tender to the touch. Pustules may also cause a slight burning sensation on the skin when touched due to the release of histamine during an infection. The pimples often appear on your chin, nose, and around your eyes. They can be found on the upper lip as well. The bumps are mainly observed during the first few months of rosacea's development. Pustules may look like acne, but they are not caused by bacteria and do not suggest that you have an infection.

What are the Symptoms of the Condition

Redness or flushing on the face occurs suddenly without triggering known triggers (for example, foods, beverages, or emotions). The concerned part may have a different sensation while touched. Some creams may help relieve symptoms of redness and burning skin, mainly on the nose and chin.

In addition to the above symptoms, the following symptoms may occur in advanced stages

  • This type of rosacea is common among the elderly. It occurs due to loss of elasticity of the skin and thinning of the facial tissue. This type of rosacea is more severe than the other types and has more severe symptoms. The person's skin becomes very thin, he develops a bulbous nose, and his face appears pale and flabby with fine wrinkles around his mouth. Advanced rosacea can also cause permanent eye damage leading to decreased vision or blindness in extreme cases.

  • Rosacea usually affects people who are white and with light or blond hair color. Females are more prone to experience it than males. It may also affect people with a family history of rosacea.

  • Rosacea can develop anytime, but it most commonly occurs in people over 30. People over 40 are usually more affected by this condition than younger.

  • The first signs of rosacea may happen suddenly or develop slowly. People with fair skin and light hair are most susceptible to the condition, but it can occur in all skin types and colors.

Diagnosis of Rosacea

The doctor will question the patient's symptoms, medical history, and other relevant information to diagnose rosacea. He may use diagnostic tests such as a biopsy to diagnose properly. A skin biopsy is usually unnecessary as it will only confirm the initial diagnosis of rosacea, which can already be diagnosed by looking at the bumps on your skin.

The doctor may order blood tests to rule out other medical conditions that have similar symptoms to rosacea. These tests can help determine if someone has anemia or any other deficiency causing similar symptoms. They can also tell if there is an infection from bacteria or a virus or any other condition that may have caused the redness on the concerned body part.

The doctor may test for contact allergies, which can cause similar symptoms to rosacea. These tests are usually done by applying allergen extracts to the skin and noting any reactions. Tests can also be performed to rule out vitamin deficiencies such as B12 deficiency, which may lead to skin abnormalities.

Treatment of Rosacea

There are several ways by which the symptoms of rosacea can be treated. The primary ones are to prevent flare-ups and reduce inflammatory processes in the body. The rosacea symptoms can be managed with various medications such as topical antibiotics, antihistamines, retinoids, and steroids.

There is also evidence that many people with rosacea experience improvement from using a combination of prescribed medications and lifestyle changes such as dietary changes, exercise, stress management, and avoiding alcohol consumption. Doctors will always advise you about a treatment plan that is best for you. Rosacea generally results from an imbalanced immune system or lack of vitamins.

Prevention of Rosacea

There are no known ways to prevent rosacea, but sunscreen with SPF 30 or higher may help.


We believe that a doctor can only diagnose the condition properly. Rosacea is diagnosed based on the symptoms and physical changes in the skin and blood tests that may rule out other conditions with similar symptoms to rosacea.

The doctor will recommend treatment based on your medical history and may sometimes test your skin for contact allergies. A skin biopsy is usually unnecessary, but it may be used if there are no other signs to look out for when diagnosing rosacea. The best way to manage or prevent rosacea is to find ways of reducing flare-ups.