Calcium is a mineral and is one of the elements found in the human body. The major source of calcium is dairy products such as milk, leafy green vegetables, fish with soft bones.
The calcium levels in our body range from 9 to 11 mg/dl. Any variations in these levels cause many unwanted health problems. The condition in which there is an increase in calcium levels is called hypercalcemia. A slight increase in calcium levels does not cause much harm and can be brought back to normal levels with proper treatment.
The situation of excess calcium is caused in the blood due to many reasons.
Hyperparathyroidism − Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is responsible for increasing blood calcium levels in our body. So, during hyperparathyroidism, calcium from bones and intestine gets absorbed into the blood.
Lung ailments and growth − Granulomatous ailments, for example, tuberculosis and sarcoidosis, are lung sicknesses that increase blood vitamin D levels. This causes more calcium assimilation, which builds up the calcium level in your blood.
Medication − Diuretics, medicines that promote diuresis cause more water loss leading to retention of salts like calcium. Some drugs contain lithium which enhances PTH secretion. Overuse of antacids which contain calcium bicarbonate increase calcium levels.
Diet − Too much intake of calcium-rich sources like milk, yogurt, fish etc.
Dehydration − Water loss or low body fluids cause calcium accumulation in the form of salts like calcium carbonate etc. This occurs when there are any kidney disorders or even during low water intake. Water must be drunk at regular intervals throughout the day.
The control of calcium levels is primarily governed by vitamin D, calcitonin, and parathyroid hormone. Many problems are created due to excess calcium in the body.
Osteoporosis − Increase in PTH hormone leads to decrease the bone volume by increasing bone resorption that causes bone-degradation, sickness, osteoporosis, which could prompt bone breaks, spinal cord degradation. This might disrupt our body alignments and stature.
Renal stones − In case of hypercalcemia, calcium deposits in the kidney tubules forming crystals that lead to obstruction of urine passage causing pain.
Renal failure − Extreme hypercalcemia can harm your kidneys, restraining their capacity to wash the blood and wipe out the liquid.
Sensory system issues − Extreme hypercalcemia can prompt perplexity, dementia and trance-like state, which can be fatal. It can likewise cause depression.
Abnormal heart rhythm − Hypercalcemia can influence the electrical driving forces that direct your pulse, making your heart beat unpredictably.
Digestive system − Hypercalcemia may lead to stomach disturbance, sickness, regurgitating and constipation.
Bones and muscles − Parathyroid hormone decrease bone calcium by promoting its reabsorption and osteoclasts (bone-destroying cells) activity is increased and also osteoblasts (bone forming cells) activity is decreased.
Reduce the intake of calcium-rich diet like milk, yogurt etc.
In hypercalcemia if severe symptoms appear or if the values are critically increased, reducing the blood calcium levels may require hospitalization and the use of hydration, steroids, or even dialysis.
Oral and Intravenous injection treatments can be used to decrease the calcium levels.