Dhaniya is an annual herb that is native to Mediterranean and western Asia regions with commercial supplies now coming from Turkey, India, Bulgaria, Russia, and Morocco. The plant Dhaniya (coriander) is named after Koris, the Greek word from the bug, as the unripe fruits have a smell that has been compared to that of bedbugs.
The fruits and leaves of the coriander possess a unique flavor and hence they are used in a different way to flavor the food.
Dhaniya is one of the oldest spices mentioned in recorded history, with evidence of its use more than 5000 years ago. Coriander seems to have been cultivated in Greece since at least BC 2000. The early physicians including Hippocrates used coriander for its medicinal properties, including also as an aromatic stimulant. The Russian Federation, India, Morocco, and Holland are among the countries that commercially produce the coriander seeds.
Major producers are Morocco, Canada, India, Pakistan, Romania, and the former Soviet Union.
Secondary export markets include Sri Lanka, Trinidad and Tobago, The United Kingdom, Mexico, and the U.S.
Canada is one of the largest producers and exporters of the plant. Approximately 23000 acres were grown in 2005 which was close to 9000 tons of Dhaniya produced.
The major imported of coriander from India are Europe, U.S, Singapore, and the Gulf countries.
Analysis has that showed that the caffeic acid, Protocatechuic Acid, and Glycitin are the major polyphenols in coriander and they are the principal components responsible for the antioxidant activity of the aqueous coriander extract.
The leaves of the coriander showed stronger antioxidant activity than the fruits.
Coriander leaves and seed are well reported for their antidiabetic activity by increased release of insulin from the pancreatic cell by increased release of insulin from the pancreatic cell. It has been demonstrated that C.Sativum extract was able to decrease hyperglycemia by increasing glucose uptake and insulin secretion.
The extract of the Dhaniya seed possesses diuretic activity. Excretion of water and electrolytes in urine was measured and creatinine clearance was determined. The crude extract of the Dhaniya seeds increases diuresis, excretion of electrolytes and glomerular filtration in a dose-dependent way.
Hepatotoxicity is a common disease among people with long term consumption of alcohol amidst other causative hepatotoxins.
The bioactive compounds that are highly protective against hepatoxicity are of phenolic compounds. Coriander leaves are rich in these compounds found to be highly hepatoprotective.
In a study, the coriander seeds incorporated into the diet and effect of the administration of coriander seeds on the metabolism of lipids was examined in rats, fed a high-fat diet and added cholesterol.
The seeds had a significant hypolipidemic action. The level of high-density cholesterol increases while that of low cholesterol decreased in the experimental group compared to the control group.
There are many more functional uses of Dhaniya that can be used for the betterment of health. The discussed activities are some of the most important roles that Dhaniya plays as a functionally usable plant.