What are chromosomes? What role they play in human beings?

The chromosomes are carriers of the genetic elements of the organism in the form of DNA. Chromosomes possess all the data that aids for cell development, survival, and reproduction. DNA portions with particular patterns are known as genes. The nucleus of the cell contains the chromosomes. In prokaryotic life forms, the DNA is absent in the nucleus; the DNA is present in the cytoplasm in a region called as the nucleoid.

The chromosomes vary between various life forms. Eukaryotic cells have an extensive number of direct chromosomes and cells of prokaryotes have little and round shaped DNA. More than one type of chromosomes can be found in the cells, as in most eukaryotic cells. In plant cells, the mitochondria and the chloroplasts have their own arrangement of chromosomes.

The chromosomes are stuffed by proteins to form a minimized structure called chromatin in the nucleus of eukaryotic organisms. This buildup enables long compounds of DNA to fit into the nucleus of the cell. The chromosomes are imitated, isolated and passed on to daughter cells, to guarantee genetic diversity and survival of the offspring.

Chromatids are duplicates chromosomes which are its identical copies and are joined by a centromere. Compaction of the chromosomes amid the cell division process gives the four-arm structure. Recombination of chromosome assumes an essential part in genetic diversity. Incorrect augmentation of the chromosomes may prompt mitotic failure or cell demise.

Functions of Chromosomes

Genetic Code Storage − The chromosome contains the hereditary material which is required by the living beings to create and develop. DNA particles are made of a chain of units called genes. They are the segments of the DNA which code for particular proteins required by the cell for its proper working.

Sex Determination − Humans have 23 sets of chromosomes out of which one set is the sex chromosome. Females have two X chromosomes and males have one X and one Y chromosome. The sex of the baby is controlled by the chromosome passed down by the male. In the event that X chromosome is passed out of XY chromosome, the baby will be a female and if a Y chromosome is passed, the child is a male.

Control of Cell Division − Chromosomes check the division of cells amid the process of mitosis. The chromosomes of the parent cells see the right information is passed on to the daughter cells required by the cell to develop and grow perfectly.

Development of Proteins and Storage − Proteins are fundamental for the activity of a cell. The chromosomes coordinate the arrangements of proteins developed in our body and furthermore keep up the order of DNA. The proteins are additionally stored in the coiled structures of the chromosomes. These proteins help in the appropriate packaging of the DNA.